Puberty

pubescentpubescencesexual developmentpubertalprepubescentpre-pubescentsexual maturityvoice brokeabove 14 yearsbroken
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.wikipedia
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Child

childrenschoolchildrenkids
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty, or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty.

Libido

sex drivesexual desirelibidinal
In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth, function, and transformation of the brain, bones, muscle, blood, skin, hair, breasts, and sex organs.
Libido can also be affected by medical conditions, medications, lifestyle and relationship issues, and age (e.g., puberty).

Breast

breastsbosombreast tissue
In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth, function, and transformation of the brain, bones, muscle, blood, skin, hair, breasts, and sex organs.
At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause breast development in female humans and to a much lesser extent in other primates.

Menarche

first periodfirst menstrual periodfirst menstruation
The major landmark of puberty for females is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages 12 and 13.
From both social and medical perspectives, it is often considered the central event of female puberty, as it signals the possibility of fertility.

Precocious puberty

early pubertyCentral precocious pubertyperipheral precocious puberty
Puberty which starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, and puberty which starts later than usual is known as delayed puberty.
In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.

Delayed puberty

delayedpuberty inductiondelayed, reduced, or absent puberty
Puberty which starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, and puberty which starts later than usual is known as delayed puberty.
Delayed puberty is when a person lacks or has incomplete development of specific sexual characteristics past the usual age of onset of puberty.

Adult

adulthoodadultsmaturity
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. Derived from the Latin puberatum (age of maturity), the word puberty describes the physical changes to sexual maturation, not the psychosocial and cultural maturation denoted by the term adolescent development in Western culture, wherein adolescence is the period of mental transition from childhood to adulthood, which overlaps much of the body's period of puberty.
Historically and cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined primarily by the start of puberty (the appearance of secondary sex characteristics such as menstruation in women, ejaculation in men, and pubic hair in both sexes).

Androgen

androgensandrogenicAndrogenic steroid
Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins, and the major sex steroids involved, the androgens and the estrogens. For boys, the androgen testosterone is the principal sex hormone; while testosterone is produced, all boys' changes are characterized as virilization.
This includes the embryological development of the primary male sex organs, and the development of male secondary sex characteristics at puberty.

Secondary sex characteristic

secondary sexual characteristicsecondary sex characteristicssecondary sexual characteristics
Notable among the morphologic changes in size, shape, composition, and functioning of the pubertal body, is the development of secondary sex characteristics, the "filling in" of the child's body; from girl to woman, from boy to man.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.

Estradiol

17β-estradioloestradiol17-β-estradiol
A substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol.
Estradiol is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as the breasts, widening of the hips, and a female-associated pattern of fat distribution and is important in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands, uterus, and vagina during puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy.

Virilization

masculinizationdemasculinizationvirilizing
For boys, the androgen testosterone is the principal sex hormone; while testosterone is produced, all boys' changes are characterized as virilization.
Virilization is most commonly used in three medical and biology of gender contexts: prenatal sexual differentiation, the postnatal changes of normal male puberty, and excessive androgen effects in females.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
For boys, the androgen testosterone is the principal sex hormone; while testosterone is produced, all boys' changes are characterized as virilization. The Leydig cells produce testosterone, which in turn produces most of the male pubertal changes.

Ovary

ovariesovarianOvarian tissue
It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads: the ovaries in a girl, the testes in a boy.
At puberty, the ovary begins to secrete increasing levels of hormones.

Adolescence

adolescentteenagerteenage
Derived from the Latin puberatum (age of maturity), the word puberty describes the physical changes to sexual maturation, not the psychosocial and cultural maturation denoted by the term adolescent development in Western culture, wherein adolescence is the period of mental transition from childhood to adulthood, which overlaps much of the body's period of puberty.
Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).

Gonadarche

In boys, testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty (and is termed gonadarche).
Gonadarche refers to the earliest gonadal changes of puberty.

Body hair

androgenic hairpilositybody
In the months and years following the appearance of pubic hair, other areas of skin that respond to androgens may develop androgenic hair. The usual sequence is: underarm (axillary) hair, perianal hair, upper lip hair, sideburn (preauricular) hair, periareolar hair, and the beard area.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.

Human height

heightgrowth spurtstature
Although boys are on average 2 cm shorter than girls before puberty begins, adult men are on average about 13 cm taller than women.
Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum (at around 11–12 years for female, and 13–14 years for male), followed by a steady decline to zero.

Beard

five o'clock shadowbeardsfull beard
The usual sequence is: underarm (axillary) hair, perianal hair, upper lip hair, sideburn (preauricular) hair, periareolar hair, and the beard area.
In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards.

Pubic hair

pubicpubic areapubes
Pubic hair often appears on a boy shortly after the genitalia begin to grow.
Although fine vellus hair is present in the area in childhood, pubic hair is considered to be the heavier, longer and coarser hair that develops during puberty as an effect of rising levels of androgens in males and estrogens in females.

Kisspeptin

KISS1KissKiSS-1
The researchers hypothesized that Neurokinin B might play a role in regulating the secretion of Kisspeptin, a compound responsible for triggering direct release of GnRH as well as indirect release of LH and FSH.
A mutation in GPR54 was considered responsible for this abnormality because those who held this mutation, or were missing GPR54 altogether, had problems in gonadal development during puberty.

Endocrine disruptor

endocrine disruptionendocrine disruptorsendocrine disrupting chemicals
This can be due to any number of factors, including improved nutrition resulting in rapid body growth, increased weight and fat deposition, or exposure to endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, which can at times be due to food consumption or other environmental factors.
BPA is a known endocrine disruptor, and numerous studies have found that laboratory animals exposed to low levels of it have elevated rates of diabetes, mammary and prostate cancers, decreased sperm count, reproductive problems, early puberty, obesity, and neurological problems.

Leydig cell

Leydig cellsLeydigLeydig cell hyperplasia
The Leydig cells produce testosterone, which in turn produces most of the male pubertal changes.
'Adult'-type Leydig cells differentiate in the post-natal testis and are quiescent until puberty.

Adrenarche

Puberty is preceded by adrenarche, marking an increase of adrenal androgen production between ages 6–10.
Adrenarche is a process related to puberty, but distinct from hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) maturation and function.

Estrogen

oestrogenestrogensestrogenic
Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins, and the major sex steroids involved, the androgens and the estrogens.
Estrogens are responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, including breast development, widening of the hips, and female fat distribution.

Human penis

penispenisesdick
After the boy's testicles have enlarged and developed for about one year, the length and then the breadth of the shaft of the penis will increase and the glans penis and corpora cavernosa will also start to enlarge to adult proportions.
On entering puberty, the penis, scrotum and testicles will enlarge toward maturity.