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Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.

Intercom

Intercom Systemintercom systemsentry phone
Intercom systems, installed in many buildings, have both speakers throughout a building, and microphones in many rooms so occupants can respond to announcements.
Intercoms can incorporate connections to public address loudspeaker systems, walkie talkies, telephones, and to other intercom systems.

Emergency communication system

emergency communication systemscommunication infrastructurecommunication systems
PA and Intercom systems are commonly used as part of an emergency communication system.
Public Address System (audio)

Tannoy

Tannoy Ltd.tannoy system
In Britain any PA system is sometimes colloquially referred to as a Tannoy, after the company of that name now owned by TC Electronic Group, which supplied a great many of the PA systems used previously in Britain.
Tannoy Ltd is a British manufacturer of loudspeakers and public-address (PA) systems.

Megaphone

bullhornloudhailerspeaking trumpet
From the Ancient Greek era to the nineteenth century, before the invention of electric loudspeakers and amplifiers, megaphone cones were used by people speaking to a large audience, to make their voice project more to a large space or group.
An electric megaphone is a handheld public address system, an electronic device that amplifies the human voice like an acoustic megaphone, using electric power.

Carbon microphone

carbon transmittercarbon button microphonesbutton microphone
Their first experiment used a carbon microphone.
In public address systems it is amplified by an audio amplifier.

Musolaphone

The company also set up an experimental service, called the Musolaphone, that was used to transmitted news and entertainment programming to home and business subscribers in south-side Chicago, but this effort was short-lived.
Initially, Automatic Enunciators were employed in public address systems, for making announcements in establishments such as department stores, factories, and railroad stations.

Loudspeaker

speakerloudspeakersspeakers
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
Larger loudspeaker systems are used for music, sound reinforcement in theatres and concerts, and in public address systems.

Amplifier

amplifiersamplificationamplified
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
It made possible long distance telephone lines, public address systems, radio broadcasting, talking motion pictures, practical audio recording, radar, television, and the first computers.

Passenger information system

arrival signspassenger information displayspassenger information systems
Rail systems typically have an interface with a passenger information system (PIS) server, at each station.
Real-time information is provided to passengers in a number of different ways, including mobile phone applications, platform-level signage, and automated public address systems.

Stage monitor system

monitor speakersfoldbackmonitors
Small clubs, bars and coffeehouses use a fairly simple set-up, with front of house speaker cabinets (and subwoofers, in some cases) aimed at the audience, and monitor speaker cabinets aimed back at the performers so they can hear their vocals and instruments.
A stage monitor system is performer-facing loudspeakers known as monitor speakers or stage monitors on stage during live music performances in which a PA system or sound reinforcement system is used to amplify the performers' singing, music, speech and other sounds for the audience.

Mixing console

mixermixing deskmixing board
A PA system may include multiple microphones or other sound sources, a mixing console to combine and modify multiple sources, and multiple amplifiers and loudspeakers for louder volume or wider distribution. Some 2010s-era mixing consoles and effects units have automatic feedback preventing circuits.
Mixing consoles are used in many applications, including recording studios, public address systems, sound reinforcement systems, nightclubs, broadcasting, television, and film post-production.

Sound reinforcement system

sound systemsound reinforcementsound systems
The term, sound reinforcement system generally means a PA system specifically for live music or performance.
On the other hand, a sound reinforcement system can be as simple as a small public address (PA) system, consisting of, for example, a single microphone connected to a 100 watt amplified loudspeaker for a singer-guitarist playing in a small coffeehouse.

Audio feedback

feedbackguitar feedbackacoustic feedback
When the 12 V battery was connected to the system, they experienced one of the first examples of acoustic feedback, a typically unwanted effect often characterized by high-pitched sounds.
For small PA systems the sound is readily recognized as a loud squeal or screech.

Line array

arraysline source arrayline-array
Touring productions travel with relocatable large line-array PA systems, sometimes rented from an audio equipment hire company.
Line arrays can be oriented in any direction, but their primary use in public address is in vertical arrays which provide a very narrow vertical output pattern useful for focusing sound at audiences without wasting output energy on ceilings or empty air above the audience.

Fire alarm notification appliance

fire bellalertbell
A large PA system may also be used as an alert system during an emergency.
The system can be stand alone (i.e. using dedicated loudspeakers, which can also feature integrated strobe lights), or the system can accommodate public address system functionality.

Equalization (audio)

equalizationequalizerEQ
Sound engineers take several steps to maximize gain before feedback, including keeping microphones at a distance from speakers, ensuring that directional microphones are not pointed towards speakers, keeping the onstage volume levels down, and lowering gain levels at frequencies where the feedback is occurring, using a graphic equalizer, a parametric equalizer, or a notch filter.
Equalization may also be used to eliminate or reduce unwanted sounds (e.g., low hum coming from a guitar amplifier), make certain instruments or voices more (or less) prominent, enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone, or combat feedback (howling) in a public address system.

Effects unit

effects pedaleffects pedalseffects
Some 2010s-era mixing consoles and effects units have automatic feedback preventing circuits.
This means that a musician only needs to plug in the main power bar into AC Mains power and plug their instrument into the rack, and the last effect unit's output into their instrument amplifier and/or the PA system.

Band-stop filter

notch filterband-stopnotch
Sound engineers take several steps to maximize gain before feedback, including keeping microphones at a distance from speakers, ensuring that directional microphones are not pointed towards speakers, keeping the onstage volume levels down, and lowering gain levels at frequencies where the feedback is occurring, using a graphic equalizer, a parametric equalizer, or a notch filter.
Narrow notch filters (optical) are used in Raman spectroscopy, live sound reproduction (public address systems, or PA systems) and in instrument amplifiers (especially amplifiers or preamplifiers for acoustic instruments such as acoustic guitar, mandolin, bass instrument amplifier, etc.) to reduce or prevent audio feedback, while having little noticeable effect on the rest of the frequency spectrum (electronic or software filters).

Instrument amplifier

amplifieramplifiersamplified
Instrument amplifier
Unlike home "hi-fi" amplifiers or public address systems, which are designed to accurately reproduce the source sound signals with as little harmonic distortion as possible and without changing the tone or equalization (at least not unless the hi-fi owner adjusts it themselves with a graphic equalizer), instrument amplifiers are often designed to add additional tonal coloration to the original signal, emphasize (or de-emphasize) certain frequencies (most electric guitar amps roll off the very high frequencies), and, in the case of guitar amplifiers designed for electric guitar or Hammond organ, offer the capability to intentionally add some degree of "overdrive" or distortion to the tone.

Business telephone system

PBXprivate branch exchangekey telephone system
Some private branch exchange (PBX) telephone systems use a paging facility that acts as a liaison between the telephone and a PA amplifier.
Public address voice paging

Announcer

radio announcertelevision announcerpublic address announcer
Announcer
Public address (PA) announcers work in physical locations, including sporting venues.

Sound pressure

sound pressure levelSPLacoustic pressure
It increases the apparent volume (loudness) of a human voice, musical instrument, or other acoustic sound source or recorded sound or music.

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
Typical applications include sports stadiums, public transportation vehicles and facilities, and live or recorded music venues and events.

School

schoolsschoolingschool house
PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations—such as schools, stadiums, and passenger vessels and aircraft.