Public administration

administrationpublic officepublic affairsadministrativeAdministratorpublic managementpublic administratorstatecraftAdministrative Sciencesadministrators
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.wikipedia
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Policy analysis

policy analystpolicy analystsanalyst
Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."
Policy analysis is a technique used in public administration to enable civil servants, activists, and others to examine and evaluate the available options to implement the goals of laws and elected officials.

Civil service

civil servantpublic servantcivil servants
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Many consider the study of service to be a part of the field of public administration.

Paul H. Appleby

Paul Appleby
In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action".
Paul Henson Appleby (September 13, 1891 – October 21, 1963) was an important theorist of public administration in democracies.

Political science

political scientistpolitical analystpolitical sciences
There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research. Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either (or a fortiori both) a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration. He argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less effectively by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, and the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as sociology, political science, administrative law and public finance.
Political science—occasionally called politicology—comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics, political economy, international relations, political theory, public administration, public policy, and political methodology.

Bureaucracy

bureaucraticbureaucraciesbureaucrat
The field of management may well be said to have originated in ancient China, including possibly the first highly centralized bureaucratic state, and the earliest (by the second century BC) example of an administration based on merit through testing.
The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm.

Lorenz von Stein

Stein
Lorenz von Stein, an 1855 German professor from Vienna, is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world.
Lorenz von Stein (18 November 1815 – 23 September 1890) was a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar from Eckernförde.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as sociology, political science, administrative law and public finance.
Social research informs politicians and policy makers, educators, planners, legislators, administrators, developers, business magnates, managers, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, and people interested in resolving social issues in general.

Luther Gulick (social scientist)

Luther GulickLuther Halsey GulickGulick
A few distinguished scholars of that period were, Luther Gulick, Lyndall Urwick, Henri Fayol, Frederick Taylor, and others.
Luther Halsey Gulick (1892–1993) was an American political scientist, Eaton Professor of Municipal Science and Administration at Columbia University, and Director of its Institute of Public Administration, known as an expert on public administration.

American Society for Public Administration

American Society for Public Administration (ASPA)
The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) the leading professional group for public administration was founded in 1939.
American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) is a membership association of almost 10,000 professionals in the United States sponsoring conferences and providing professional services primarily to those who study the implementation of government policy, public administration, and, to a lesser degree, programs of civil society.

Civil service entrance examination

civil service examinationcivil service examexamination
Creel writes that, in Shen Buhai, there are the "seeds of the civil service examination", and that, if one wishes to exaggerate, it would "no doubt be possible to translate Shen Buhai's term Shu, or technique, as 'science'", and argue that he was the first political scientist, though Creel does "not care to go this far".
They are intended as a method to achieve an effective, rational public administration on a merit system for recruiting prospective politicians and public sector employees.

Public policy

public affairspolicypublic policies
Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
As an academic discipline, public policy brings in elements of many social science fields and concepts, including economics, sociology, political economy, social policy, program evaluation, policy analysis, and public management, all as applied to problems of governmental administration, management, and operations.

Louis Brownlow

The Hoover Commission, chaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlow, to examine reorganization of government.
Louis Brownlow (August 29, 1879 – September 27, 1963) was an American author, political scientist, and consultant in the area of public administration.

POSDCORB

Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB, which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
POSDCORB is an acronym widely used in the field of Management and Public Administration that reflects the classic view of Organizational theory.

Politics

politicalpoliticianpolitically
Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."
Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behaviour, as well as examining the preconditions for the formation of political communities; political economy, which attempts to develop understandings of the relationships between politics and the economy and the governance of the two; and public administration, which examines the practices of governance.

The Study of Administration

This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice, liberty, and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, and with things". According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, "The Study of Administration" in 1887 is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study".
It is widely considered a foundational article in the field of public administration, making Wilson one of the field's founding fathers, along with Max Weber and Frederick Winslow Taylor.

Patricia M. Shields

ShieldsShields, Patricia M
Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
Patricia M. Shields is perhaps most widely known as a scholar for promoting the classical pragmatism of C. S. Peirce, William James, and John Dewey as an "organizing principle" for the discipline of public administration.

Public budgeting

government budgetPublic Budgeting and Finance
Public budgeting is the activity within a government that seeks to allocate scarce resources among unlimited demands.
Public budgeting is a field of public administration and a discipline in the academic study thereof.

Administration (government)

administratedadministrationadministrative
There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research. Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science". According to Lalor a society with a public authority that provides at least one public good can be said to have a public administration whereas the absence of either (or a fortiori both) a public authority or the provision of at least one public good implies the absence of a public administration. He argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less effectively by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, and the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods.
More specifically, it may refer to public administration, the business of administering public policy as determined by government.

Human resource management in public administration

HRM in public administrationHuman resource management
Human resource management is an in-house structure that ensures that public service staffing is done in an unbiased, ethical and values-based manner. The basic functions of the HR system are employee benefits, employee health care, compensation, and many more (e.g., human rights, Americans with Disabilities Act). The executives managing the HR director and other key departmental personnel are also part of the public administration system.
Human resource management in public administration concerns human resource management as it applies specifically to the field of public administration.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
However, "until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy" there was not "much interest in a theory of public administration".
Many aspects of modern public administration go back to him and a classic, hierarchically organised civil service of the Continental type is called "Weberian civil service".

Administrative law

administrativeadministrative justiceadministrative procedure
Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as sociology, political science, administrative law and public finance.
Administrative law in Italy, known as "'Diritto amministrativo", is a branch of public law, whose rules govern the organization of the public administration and the activities of the pursuit of the public interest of the public administration and the relationship between this and the citizens.

Digital era governance

A successor to NPM is digital era governance, focusing on themes of reintegrating government responsibilities, needs-based holism (executing duties in cursive ways), and digitalization (exploiting the transformational capabilities of modern IT and digital storage).
In the public administration debate about New Public Management (NPM), the concept of digital era governance (or DEG) is claimed by Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margetts and their co-authors as replacing NPM since around 2000-05.

Public Administration Review

ASPA sponsors the journal Public Administration Review, which was founded in 1940.
Public Administration Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research, theory, and practice in the field of public administration.

Decentralization

decentralizeddecentralisationdecentralised
For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance, decentralization and clientele), these concepts are often ill-defined and typologies often ignore certain aspects of these concepts.
Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science, law and public administration, economics, money and technology.

Master of Arts

M.A.MAA.M.
University programs preparing students for careers in public administration typically offer the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree, although in some universities, an MA in Public Administration is awarded.
Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics.