Public health

Community MedicinehealthSchool of Public Healthpublic health specialisthealth researchpublicPublic Health Sciencespublic health systempublic hygienepublic-health
Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".wikipedia
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Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and management of health services are all relevant.
It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.

Environmental health

environmentalenvironmental public healthEnvironment
Other important subfields include environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, occupational safety, gender issues in health, and sexual and reproductive health.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.

Community health

communityCommunity Health ServicesCommunity Medicine
Other important subfields include environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, occupational safety, gender issues in health, and sexual and reproductive health.
Community health is a branch of public health which focuses on people and their role as determinants of their own and other peoples's health in contrast to environmental health which focuses on the physical environment and its impact on peoples health.

Health

human healthphysical healthwellness
Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada; the Alameda County Study in California; and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries.

Suicide prevention

prevent suicidesprevent suicideprevent
Common public health initiatives include promotion of handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention, and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
General efforts include measures within the realms of medicine, mental health, and public health.

Behavior change (public health)

behavior changebehaviour changebehavioral changes
Public health communications programs, vaccination programs and distribution of condoms are examples of common preventive public health measures.
Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts put in place to change people's personal habits and attitudes, to prevent disease.

Water pollution

pollutionpollutedwater
In other cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing its spread to others, either during an outbreak of infectious disease or through contamination of food or water supplies.
In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream.

Global health

global public healthhealthdeficiencies of micronutrients
The World Health Organization (WHO) is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues.
Global health is not to be confused with international health, which is defined as the branch of public health focusing on developing nations and foreign aid efforts by industrialized countries.

Surgeon General of the United States

Surgeon GeneralU.S. Surgeon GeneralOffice of the Surgeon General
In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are also involved with international health activities.
The surgeon general of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.

United States Public Health Service

U.S. Public Health ServicePublic Health ServiceUS Public Health Service
In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are also involved with international health activities.
The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health.

Health indicator

health indicatorsHealth Ministryindicators
This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through the promotion of healthy behaviors.
Health indicators are commonly used to guide public health policy.

Environmental health officer

health inspectorPublic Health Inspectorsanitarian
Depending on the need, environmental health officers or public health inspectors, bioethicists, and even veterinarians, gender experts, or sexual and reproductive health specialists might be called on.
Environmental health professionals are usually employed by local government or state health authorities to advise on and enforce public health standards.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDCCenters for Disease ControlCenter for Disease Control
In addition to their national duties, the United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are also involved with international health activities.
Its main goal is to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of disease, injury, and disability in the US and internationally.

Health care

healthcarehealth servicesmedical care
For example, epidemiology, biostatistics and management of health services are all relevant.
It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
The public can be as small as a handful of people or as large as a village or an entire city; in the case of a pandemic it may encompass several continents.

Health promotion

promote healthpromotionpromote public health
The focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and mitigate diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors, communities and environments.
There is a tendency among some public health officials, governments, and the medical industrial complex to reduce health promotion to just developing personal skill also known as health education and social marketing focused on changing behavioral risk factors.

World Health Day

World Health Day 2011World Health Day 2006World Health Day 2016: Beat Diabetes
Antibiotic resistance, also known as drug resistance, was the theme of World Health Day 2011.
World Health Day is acknowledged by various governments and non-governmental organizations with interests in public health issues, who also organize activities and highlight their support in media reports, such as the Global Health Council.

Public Health Agency of Canada

Public Health AgencyCanadian Public Health AgencyPHAC
In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention.
The Public Health Agency of Canada (French: Agence de la santé publique du Canada) is an agency of the Government of Canada that is responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
The risk of type 2 diabetes is closely linked with the growing problem of obesity.
Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.

Health system

health care systemhealthcare systemhealth systems
Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in virtually all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures.

Health communication

Health Communicationshealthpatient communication
Perrault et al. advocate for public health agencies to work with those in the discipline of Health Communication to craft objectives that are measurable outcomes, and to assist agencies in developing tools and methods to be able to track more proximal changes in their target populations (e.g., knowledge and attitude shifts) that may be influenced by the activities the agencies are performing.
Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient.

Health professional

health care providerhealthcare professionalshealth care professionals
A health professional may also be a public/community health expert working for the common good of the society.

Public health intervention

interventionhealth interventioninterventions
The focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and mitigate diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors, communities and environments.
A policy may meet the criteria of a public health intervention if it prevents disease on both the individual and community level and has a positive impact on public health.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO) is the international agency that coordinates and acts on global public health issues. As such, according to the World Health Organization, it is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

Health in China

Public health in the People's Republic of ChinaPublic health in ChinaChina
Each day brings new front-page headlines about public health: emerging infectious diseases such as SARS, rapidly making its way from China (see Public health in China) to Canada, the United States and other geographically distant countries; reducing inequities in health care access through publicly funded health insurance programs; the HIV/AIDS pandemic and its spread from certain high-risk groups to the general population in many countries, such as in South Africa; the increase of childhood obesity and the concomitant increase in type II diabetes among children; the social, economic and health effects of adolescent pregnancy; and the public health challenges related to natural disasters such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, 2005's Hurricane Katrina in the United States and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
An emphasis on public health and preventive treatment characterized health policy from the beginning of the 1950s.