Public health

Example of historical public health recommendations from 1918 in New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Community health workers
The WHO is the predominant agency associated with global health
Newspaper headlines from around the world about polio vaccine tests (13 April 1955)
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Program reading the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated, 1980
A village health worker in Zimbabwe conducting a pediatric examination
A community health worker in Korail Basti, a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A malaria test in Kenya. Despite being preventable and curable, malaria is a leading cause of death in many developing nations.
A Cuban doctor performs an open air operation in Guinea-Bissau. Cuba sends more medical personnel to the developing world than all G8 countries combined.
Mass burials during the second plague pandemic (a.k.a. the Black Death; 1346–1353) intensified urban responses to disaster on the basis of earlier practices. Miniature from "The Chronicles of Gilles Li Muisis" (1272–1352). Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, MS 13076–77, f. 24v.
A depiction of Aztec smallpox victims
Sir Edwin Chadwick was a pivotal influence on the early public health campaign.
Early epidemiologist John Snow mapped clusters of cholera cases in London
Paul-Louis Simond injecting a plague vaccine in Karachi, 1898
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is the oldest school of public health in the Anglosphere
Ghanaian children receive insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent exposure to malaria transmitting mosquitos

Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

- Public health
Example of historical public health recommendations from 1918 in New Haven, Connecticut, United States

500 related topics

Relevance

Global concentrations of health care resources, as depicted by the number of physicians per 10,000 individuals, by country. Data is sourced from a World Health Statistics 2010, a WHO report.

Health care

Maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, amelioration, or cure of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people.

Maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, amelioration, or cure of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people.

Global concentrations of health care resources, as depicted by the number of physicians per 10,000 individuals, by country. Data is sourced from a World Health Statistics 2010, a WHO report.
Primary care may be provided in community health centers.
The emergency room is often a frontline venue for the delivery of primary medical care.
Hospital train "Therapist Matvei Mudrov" in Khabarovsk, Russia
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, United Kingdom is a specialist neurological hospital.

It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.

Community health

Community health refers to simple health services that are delivered by laymen outside hospitals and clinics.

Community health refers to simple health services that are delivered by laymen outside hospitals and clinics.

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.

It is a distinct field of study that may be taught within a separate school of public health or Preventive Healthcare.

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.

Health

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Percentage of obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Modern drug ampoules
Nurses in Kokopo, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways.
A lady washing her hands c. 1655

– such as the 1974 Lalonde report from Canada; the Alameda County Study in California; and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public health outcomes, especially in developing countries.

A 21mg dose nicotine patch applied to the left arm

Smoking cessation

Process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

Process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

A 21mg dose nicotine patch applied to the left arm
Some health organizations manage text messaging services to help people avoid smoking
Percent increase of success for six months over unaided attempts for each type of quitting (chart from West & Shiffman based on Cochrane review data
Individuals who sustained damage to the insula were able to more easily abstain from smoking.
Survival from age 35 of non-smokers, cigarette smokers and ex-smokers who stopped smoking between 25 and 34 years old. The ex-smokers line follows closely the non-smokers line.
Smokers as a percentage of the population for the United States, the Netherlands, Norway, Japan, and Finland

Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and a global public health concern.

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, a crisis line in the United States and Canada

Suicide prevention

Collection of efforts to reduce the risk of suicide.

Collection of efforts to reduce the risk of suicide.

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline, a crisis line in the United States and Canada
Suicide prevention measures suggested by the CDC
Tromsø Bridge suicide prevention fence
A United States Army suicide prevention poster
A photo illustration produced by the Defense Media Agency on suicide prevention
Sign promoting Samaritans near a payphone near Beachy Head, a major suicide spot in the United Kingdom
A sign at a railroad crossing in the Netherlands promoting a suicide crisis line (113)

General efforts include measures within the realms of medicine, mental health, and public health.

The sanitation system: collection, transport, treatment, disposal or reuse.

Sanitation

The sanitation system: collection, transport, treatment, disposal or reuse.
Urban improved sanitation facilities versus rural improved sanitation facilities, 2015.
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation (2016)
Percentage of population served by different types of sanitation systems
Example of sanitation infrastructure: Shower, double-vault urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) and waterless urinal in Lima, Peru
Emergency pit lining kits by Evenproducts
Share of population using safely managed sanitation facilities in 2015
Number of Handwashing Facilities in the world, 2017
Sewage treatment plant, Australia.
Hiriya Landfill, Israel.
Modern restaurant food preparation area.
Hygiene education (on proper handwashing) in Afghanistan
The "F-diagram" (feces, fingers, flies, fields, fluids, food), showing pathways of fecal-oral disease transmission. The vertical blue lines show barriers: toilets, safe water, hygiene and handwashing.
United Nations SDG 6 Logo
Example for lack of sanitation: Unhygienic pit latrine with ring slab in Kalibari community in Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Modified logo of International Year of Sanitation, used in the UN Drive to 2015 campaign logo

Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.

Headquarters in Geneva

World Health Organization

Headquarters in Geneva
Headquarters in Geneva
Alexey Yablokov (left) and Vassili Nesterenko (farthest right) protesting in front of the World Health Organization headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland in 2008.
Demonstration on Chernobyl disaster day near WHO in Geneva
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme read the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated, 1980
Countries by World Health Organization membership status
Stairwell, 1969
Internal courtyard, 1969
Reflecting pool, 1969
Exterior, 1969
From Southwest, 2013
Entrance hall, 2013
Main conference room, 2013

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.

Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854

Epidemiology

Study and analysis of the distribution , patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined population.

Study and analysis of the distribution , patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined population.

Original map by John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854

It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.

Global urbanization map showing the percentage of urbanization and the biggest global population centres per country in 2018, based on UN estimates.

Urbanization

Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change.

Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change.

Global urbanization map showing the percentage of urbanization and the biggest global population centres per country in 2018, based on UN estimates.
Urbanization over the past 500 years
A global map illustrating the first onset and spread of urban centers around the world, based on.
Population age comparises between rural Pocahontas County, Iowa and urban Johnson County, Iowa, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centres in Iowa.
The City of Chicago, Illinois is an example of the early American grid system of development. The grid is enforced even on uneven topography.
A crowded BTS Station during the rush hour in Bangkok, Thailand
Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006.

Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including urban planning, geography, sociology, architecture, economics, education, statistics and public health.

NY College of Health Professions Massage Therapy Class

Health professional

Provider of health care treatment and advice based on formal training and experience.

Provider of health care treatment and advice based on formal training and experience.

NY College of Health Professions Massage Therapy Class
US Navy doctors deliver a healthy baby
70% of global health and social care workers are women, 30% of leaders in the global health sector are women
Dental assistant on the right supporting a dental operator on the left, during a procedure.
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Experts in public health and community health are also health professionals.