Mulato, a Tehuelche Chief.
Flag of the Gününa künä, or Puelche people
The approximate distribution of languages in the southernmost regions of South America during the years of the Spanish conquest.
Tehuelche chiefs, located in Santa Cruz Province in the south of Argentina.
Grupo de patagones en puerto Peckett. An 1832 drawing made during the voyage of Jules Dumont d'Urville.
Distribution of pre-Hispanic peoples in Southern Patagonia
Tehuelche Cloak. Museo de La Plata.
The classification of Chonan languages, according to Roberto Lehmann-Nitsche.
Rock art at Cueva de las Manos, Santa Cruz Province.
Portrait of Chief Junchar by José del Pozo in Puerto Deseado, in 1789, during the Malaspina Expedition (1789–1794).
Tehuelches in Río Gallegos.
Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia
Elderly Tehuelche woman smoking a tobacco pipe.
Rosa Chiquichano, of Tehuelche descent. A past member of the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, representing the Chubut Province.
The Tehuelche flag: The blue of the sea, the brown of the mountains, the black arrow pointing north and the Southern Cross.

They were annihilated by plagues and epidemics in the late 18th century, with survivors merging into other groups such as the Mapuche, Het, and Tehuelche.

- Puelche people

"Guénena-kéne": the group he considered the northern component of the Tehuelche complex. It is evident that the group, historically, lived primarily along the main rivers of North Patagonia and extended through the northern territories of Chubut, up to Río Negro, constantly entering in to the south of the present Buenos Aires Province and the southeastern region of La Pampa Province. The name Guénena-kéne was provided to Escalada in 1945 by Chief Ciriaco Chaquilla from the Chubut Panyanieyo area, who identified himself as a member of the "Pampa Verdadero". He spoke the Puelche language, which was used by the Guénena-kéne people. Escalada's classification of the Guénena-kéne people coincided with other individuals who encountered the same group such as: Guillermo Cox, a British traveler who traveled through the south of Neuquén in 1863 and referred to the group as the "Northern Tehuelche people;" Juan Federico Hunziker, a Swiss missionary who was in Patagonia in 1864 and referred to the Guénena-kéne as the "Genacin;" Francisco Pascasio Moreno who in 1876 called them the "Gennaken;" and Tomás Harrington, a rural teacher who went through Chubut between 1911 and 1935 and compiled a vocabulary which he published in 1946 stating that the indigenous peoples who informed him about their almost dead language referred to themselves as "Gününa küne." In combination with other neighboring groups the Guénena-kéne were generally referred to as the Puelches (i.e. ‘Eastern’) by the Mapuches, a name which Alcide d’Orbigny also gave them in his Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale (1826–1833). The Salesian missionary Doménico Milanesio named the Guénena-kéne the "Pampas" in his 1898 vocabulary, published in 1915. In 1922, doctor and German ethnologist Robert Lehmann-Nitsche, who traveled through Argentina circa 1900, called them the "Agününa künnü."

- Tehuelche people
Mulato, a Tehuelche Chief.

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Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups.