Puerto Rico

A 20th-century reconstruction of an 8th-century Taíno village, located at the spot where their ballpark and remains were discovered in 1975, in the aftermath of Hurricane Eloise.
Artist's depiction of Juan Ponce de León, Puerto Rico's first governor
Hendricksz 1625 attack on San Juan, Puerto Rico
Sugar haciendas, like the one portrayed above, ran a significant portion of the Puerto Rican economy in the late 19th century
The 16th-century Spanish colonial-era fort, Castillo San Felipe del Morro (background), in San Juan
The flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt
The Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
Monument commemorating the 1873 abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico, located in Ponce
Artistic rendering of the 1898 Bombardment of San Juan by American forces during the Spanish–American War
The first company of Puerto Ricans enlisted in the U.S. Army, within a year of the U.S. invasion
The first Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, appointed pursuant to the Foraker Act
Soldiers of the 65th Infantry training at Camp Santiago, Salinas, Puerto Rico (August 1941)
Painting of a bayonet charge by the U.S. 65th Infantry Regiment, made up of Puerto Rican troops, against a Chinese division during the Korean War
Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
Beach and coastline at Patillas, in southeast Puerto Rico
NOAA Bathymetry Image of Puerto Rico (2020)
Enlargeable, detailed map of Puerto Rico
Köppen climate types in Puerto Rico indicating that the island primarily has rainforest and monsoon climate types.
Common Coquí
Population density, Census 2000
Sunday mass, Stella Maris Parish, San Juan, Puerto Rico
The difference between the incumbent party, the PPD, and its opponent, the PNP, was a mere 0.6% in the last election. This difference is common as the political landscape experiences political cycles between both parties, with the PPD ruling all branches of government for 36 of the past 64 years. The PNP, on the other hand, has ruled both the executive and legislative branch concurrently for 16 years. The other 12 years experienced a divided government.
The Capitol of Puerto Rico, home of the Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico
U.S. military installations and other federal lands in Puerto Rico (including the United States Virgin Islands) throughout the 20th century
ballistic missile submarine USS Maryland, Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, 1997
A map of Puerto Rico showing its 78 municipalities; the islands of Vieques and Culebra have their own municipal governments
Real GDP per capita development of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector
The 2012 Budget of the government of Puerto Rico
A map of the Jones Act merchant marine shipping routes for Puerto Rico
Flying into San Juan
Street-lined homes in Old San Juan
Eugenio María de Hostos
Cuchifritos (Carnitas) in New York
Plantain "arañitas" and "tostones rellenos"
San Juan 450th 1971 issue, depicting one of the [[:File:Lookout Station.JPG|garitas]] of El Morro
Puerto Rico Islanders fans at a soccer game
Puerto Rico interstate highways
The Tren Urbano system at Bayamón Station

Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States.

- Puerto Rico

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Dominican Republic

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

St Dominic, the patron saint of astronomers.
The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola
The Spanish Caribbean in 1600
National pantheon in Santo Domingo built from 1714 to 1746
Contemporary map showing the border situation on Hispaniola following the Treaty of Aranjuez (1777)
Hispaniola
Jean-Pierre Boyer, the ruler of Haiti
Juan Pablo Duarte, founding father of the Dominican Republic.
Original flag of the Dominican Republic (up to 1849).
Battle of Las Carreras (April 21, 1849)
Pedro Santana is sworn in as governor-general of the new Spanish province
Battle of Monte Cristi (1864)
President Alejandro Woss y Gil taking office in 1903
Ramón Cáceres
The United States Marine Corps landing on Dominican soil in 1916
Marines of the 4th regiment with a captured rebel "spray gun" at Santiago
The flag of the United States waving over Ozama Fortress during the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic, c. 1922
Dominican Republic president elect Horacio Vasquez meeting with United States officials.
Rafael Trujillo imposed a dictatorship of 31 years in the country (1930–1961)
Destruction of Santo Domingo after the 1930 hurricane
Explosion in Paseo Los Próceres during the Betancourt assassination attempt, June 24, 1960
Juan Bosch, the first democratically elected president after the regime of Rafael Trujillo
A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors activity from a street barricade in Santo Domingo
Joaquín Balaguer, was puppet president during the Trujillo dictatorship (1960-1962), and constitutional president of the country for 22 years (1966-1978 and 1986-1996)
Leonel Fernández was president from 1996–2000 & 2004–2012.
Danilo Medina was president from 2012–2020.
2020 Dominican Republic municipal elections protests in Plaza de La Bandera, Santo Domingo.
Luis Abinader, the current president of the Dominican Republic since 2020.
Topographical map of Dominican Republic
Constanza valley
Mangroves in Los Haitises National Park
There are numerous waterfalls across Dominican Republic. In the image the Salto del Limón
Köppen climate types of the Dominican Republic
The National Palace in Santo Domingo
Dominican President Luis Abinader
Dominican soldiers training in Santo Domingo
Provinces of the Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional.
A proportional representation of Dominican Republic exports, 2019
Historical GDP per capita development in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
View of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic capital city.
Cabeza de Toro beach, Punta Cana
Teleférico de Santo Domingo
27 de febrero avenue in Santo Domingo.
A pair of 9000 series are tested on the Santo Domingo Metro.
The Dominican Republic's population (1961–2003)
Population pyramid in 2020
Dominican Republic people in the town of Moca
The Gothic Cathedral of Santa María la Menor, Santo Domingo, is the oldest cathedral in the Americas, built between 1514 and 1541
Family of Japanese descent in Constanza's neighbourhood of Colonia Japonesa
A satellite image of the border between the denuded landscape of Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right), highlighting the deforestation on the Haitian side
Dominicans and Haitians lined up to attend medical providers from the U.S. Army Reserve
Haitian workers being transported in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Day Parade in New York City, 2014
Kids taking classes
Campesino cibaeño, 1941 (Museo de Arte Moderno, Santo Domingo)
Church and Convent, Colonial Santo Domingo.
Chicharrón mixto, common dish in the country derived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Tostones, a fried plantain dish
Merengue and Bachata are both music genres native to Dominican Republic, popular and traditional in Latin America. In the image two icons of these genres Juan Luis Guerra and Romeo Santos
Dominican native, fashion designer and perfume maker Oscar de la Renta
Bayahibe Rose
Dominican native and Major League Baseball player David Ortiz

The Taínos also inhabited Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas.

Isla de Mona

Picture of Mona Island between the Dominican Republic and the Puerto Rico mainland
Mona Island Lighthouse and Mona Island Tramway, 1913
Looking out from Cueva del Diamante
Mona Island cave
{{lang|es|Cueva del Diamante}} on Isla Mona
US 2010 Census map of the two islands (Isla de Mona) and (Monito Island)
Mona overview map
Armored sea robin with brittle star

Mona (Isla de Mona) is the third-largest island of the Puerto Rican archipelago, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques.

Puerto Ricans

Crowd gathering on a street in Puerto Rico in 1939, photographed by Robert Yarnall Richie
Two men sit by the side of a road with the ocean behind them in Puerto Rico.
José Campeche is the first known Puerto Rican visual artist.
"A Puerto Rican family lives here" sign on a wall in San Juan

Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the people of Puerto Rico, the inhabitants, and citizens of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and their descendants.

Treaty of Paris (1898)

Treaty signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, that ended the Spanish–American War.

John Hay, Secretary of State, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of the United States

Under it, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba and also ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.

Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives

John A. Burns of Hawaii, the last of a series of delegates to continuously serve in Congress
Federico Degetau y González of Puerto Rico, The first resident commissioner in the United States Congress
Amata C. Radewagen is American Samoa's first female delegate
Walter E. Fauntroy, delegate from the District of Columbia from 1971 to 1991
Choctaw Nation Delegate to Washington Peter Pitchlynn who served as ambassador from 1845 to 1861 and again from 1866 to 1881
Cherokee Nation Delegate to Congress Kimberly Teehee

Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives (called either delegates or resident commissioner, in the case of Puerto Rico) are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but nevertheless have floor privileges and are able to participate in certain other House functions.

Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico

The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico (Comisionado Residente de Puerto Rico) is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term.

Spanish–American War

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)
Cuban War of Independence
A Spanish satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896) criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba by Manuel Moliné. Upper text reads (in old Catalan): "Uncle Sam's craving", and below: "To keep the island so it won't get lost".
An American cartoon published in Judge, February 6, 1897: Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to the oppressed Cuba (the caption under the chained child reads "Spain's 16th Century methods") while Uncle Sam (representing the U.S. government) sits blindfolded, refusing to see the atrocities or use his guns to intervene (cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton).
Illustrated map published by the Guardia Civil showing the Kingdom of Spain and its remaining colonial possessions in 1895 (Caroline and Mariana Islands, as well as Spanish Sahara, Morocco, Guinea and Guam are not included.)
The American transport ship Seneca, a chartered vessel that carried troops to Puerto Rico and Cuba
Spanish Vessels captured up to evening of May 1, 1898
CHAP. 189. – An Act Declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain on April 25, 1898.
The last stand of the Spanish Garrison in Cuba by Murat Halstead, 1898
The Pacific theatre of the Spanish–American War
Spanish Marines trenched during the Battle of Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish artillery regiment during the Philippine Campaign
Group of Tagalog Filipino revolutionaries during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Spanish infantry troops and officers in Manila
The Spanish armored cruiser, which was destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3, 1898
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill
Mauser Model 1893 rifle, used by the Spanish infantry and superior to American rifles; the Springfield Model 1892-99 and the Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Because of this superiority the US Army developed the M1903 Springfield.
Charge of the Rough Riders
Receiving the news of the surrender of Santiago
The Santiago Campaign (1898)
Crewmen pose under the gun turrets of USS Iowa (BB-4) in 1898.
Spanish troops before they departed to engage the American forces at Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
A monument in Guánica, Puerto Rico, for the U.S. infantrymen who lost their lives in the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Oil on canvas painted and signed with initials A.A. by Antonio Antón and Antonio Iboleón, around 1897. It is an ideal view of the Spanish Squadron of Instruction in 1896, before the war of 1898, since the ships represented never sailed together. On the left the Battleship Pelayo with insignia, followed by the cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Infanta María Teresa and Alfonso XIII; on the right, the cruiser Carlos V with insignia, Almirante Oquendo and Vizcaya. On the starboard side of the Pelayo sails the torpedo boat Destructor; Two Furor-class destroyer boats sail along the bows of the Carlos V. Stormy sea and partly cloudy skies.
Cámara's squadron in the Suez Canal in July 1898. His flagship, the battleship Pelayo, can be seen in the foreground. The last ship of the line is the armored cruiser Carlos V. Finally this squad would not fight in the war.
Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to the United States, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of Spain
US Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer
Cross of Military Merit for Combat in Cuba

The treaty ceded ownership of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine islands from Spain to the United States and granted the United States temporary control of Cuba.

Caribbean Sea

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

Satellite image of the Caribbean Sea
Coral reef near Soufrière Quarter, Saint Lucia
Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola in 1492
Tulum, a Mayan city on the coast of the Caribbean in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico
Coral reefs in the British Virgin Islands
The shaded relief map of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico area
Caribbean plate tectonics
Sketch of the North Equatorial Current and the Gulf Stream
The Belize Barrier Reef photographed from the International Space Station in 2016
Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico
Average sea surface temperatures for the Caribbean Atlantic Ocean (25–27 August 2005). Hurricane Katrina is seen just above Cuba.
Puerto Rican parrot
Green sea turtle, Grand Cayman Island
A view of San Andrés island, Colombia
Sunrise over the south beach of Jamaica
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Marie Galante, Guadeloupe
Beach of Curaçao
Mona Island, Puerto Rico
Palm Beach, Aruba
Cayo Coco, Cuba
Saint-Marc, Haiti
Sunset in the Caribbean Sea
Roatán, Honduras

On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point (74°15′W) and Pearl Point (19°40′N) in Haiti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada (18.51667°N, -67.13333°W) in Puerto Rico.

United States nationality law

United States nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United States nationality.

Physicist Albert Einstein receiving his Certificate of Naturalization from Judge Phillip Forman in 1940.
A judge swears in a new citizen. New York, 1910
A State Department certification of birth abroad, issued prior to 1990.
A State Department certification of report of birth, issued between 1990 and 2010.
A State Department consular report of birth abroad, issued beginning 2011.
Message in the passport of an American Samoan stating that the passport holder is a national, not citizen, of the U.S.
A certificate of naturalization (1955)
A person holding up their certificate of derivative citizenship (2010)
A Certificate of Loss of Nationality, signifying that the bearer has relinquished or renounced U.S. nationality.

At the time, these included Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, acquired in 1898 at the end of the Spanish–American War.

Commonwealth (U.S. insular area)

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Commonwealth is a term used by two unincorporated territories of the United States in their full official names, which are the Northern Mariana Islands, whose full name is Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Puerto Rico, which is named Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in English and Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico in Spanish, translating to "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico."