Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitpulmonaryPulmonary venous systemalveolar capillariescirculation of the bloodpulmonary bedspulmonary blood vesselpulmonary capillariespulmonary circulatory
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.wikipedia
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Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
The lungs have a unique blood supply, receiving deoxygenated blood from the heart in the pulmonary circulation for the purposes of receiving oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, and a separate supply of oxygenated blood to the tissue of the lungs, in the bronchial circulation.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary artery pressure
The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are the pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary veins.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
It includes the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.

Bronchial circulation

A separate system known as the bronchial circulation supplies oxygenated blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lung.
It is complementary to the pulmonary circulation that brings deoxygenated blood to the lungs and carries oxygenated blood away from them in order to oxygenate the rest of the body.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The oxygenated blood then leaves the lungs through pulmonary veins, which return it to the left part of the heart, completing the pulmonary cycle.
From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.

Respiration (physiology)

respirationrespiratoryrespiratory physiology
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is picked up during respiration.
Breathing in brings air into the lungs where the process of gas exchange takes place between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
From the right atrium, the blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve), into the right ventricle. This blood then enters the left atrium, which pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
In a four-chambered heart, such as that in humans, there are two ventricles that operate in a double circulatory system: the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation to the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation through the aorta.

Atrium (heart)

right atriumatrialeft atrium
This blood then enters the left atrium, which pumps it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle.
The right atrium receives and holds deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, anterior cardiac veins and smallest cardiac veins and the coronary sinus, which it then sends down to the right ventricle (through the tricuspid valve), which in turn sends it to the pulmonary artery for pulmonary circulation.

Pulmonary vein

pulmonary veinspulmonaryPulmonary venous
The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are the pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary veins. The oxygenated blood then leaves the lungs through pulmonary veins, which return it to the left part of the heart, completing the pulmonary cycle.
The pulmonary veins are part of the pulmonary circulation.

Foramen ovale (heart)

foramen ovalePatent foramen ovaleatrial septal
The fetal lungs are collapsed, and blood passes from the right atrium directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale: an open conduit between the paired atria, or through the ductus arteriosus: a shunt between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. Over the course of several months, the foramen ovale closes, leaving a shallow depression known as the fossa ovalis.
It is one of two fetal cardiac shunts, the other being the ductus arteriosus (which allows blood that still escapes to the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary circulation).

Fetal circulation

antenatal circulationBlood flowembryonic artery
The pulmonary circulation loop is virtually bypassed in fetal circulation.
In the fetus, there is an opening between the right and left atrium (the foramen ovale), and most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation.

Fossa ovalis (heart)

fossa ovalisLimbus of fossa ovalislimbus fossae ovalis
Over the course of several months, the foramen ovale closes, leaving a shallow depression known as the fossa ovalis.
After birth, the introduction of air into the lungs causes the pressure in the pulmonary circulatory system to drop.

Vascular resistance

total peripheral resistancesystemic vascular resistanceperipheral vascular resistance
The resistance offered by the systemic circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or may sometimes be called by the older term total peripheral resistance (TPR), while the resistance offered by the pulmonary circulation is known as the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR).

Michael Servetus

ServetusMiguel ServetMiguel Serveto
Other sources credit Spanish physician Michael Servetus (c.
He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio (1553).

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn NafisIbn an-NafisAl-Nafis
1509 - 1553 CE) and Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis (1213 - 1288 CE) with the discovery.
Ala-al-Ddin abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician from Damascus mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

Cardiac shunt

left-to-right shuntshuntshunting
Blood going to the lungs is called the pulmonary circulation.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
The Greek physician Galen (129 - c. 210 CE) provided the next insights into pulmonary circulation.
1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina (Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon), in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation.

William Harvey

HarveyDe GenerationeHarvey, William
In much of modern medical literature, the discovery is credited to English physician William Harvey (1578 - 1657 CE).
Published in 1628 in the city of Frankfurt (host to an annual book fair that Harvey knew would allow immediate dispersion of his work), the 72-page Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus contains the mature account of the circulation of the blood.

Christianismi Restitutio

Christianismi Restituto
Servetus published his findings in Christianismi Restituto (1553), a theological work that was considered "heretical" by Catholics and Calvinists alike, burned on the stake (along with its author) and barely survived in a few copies.
It also contained, incidentally and by way of illustration, groundbreaking views on pulmonary circulation based on the discoveries of Arab Muslim physician Ibn Al Nafis, that challenged the incorrect teachings of Galen.

Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

Commentary on Anatomy in'' ''Avicenna's'' ''Canon
The arab physician, Ibn al-Nafis, wrote the Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon in 1242 in which he provided the first known accurate description of pulmonary circulation as it is known today.
It contains the earliest descriptions of the coronary circulation and pulmonary circulation systems.

Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

De Motu CordisOn the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animalsbook on the circulation of blood
Finally, William Harvey provided the most complete and accurate description of pulmonary circulation of any of the European physicians in his treatise Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus in 1628.
Moreover, the one-way valves in the heart, like those in the veins, indicate that, following the pulmonary circulation, the blood goes out to all parts of the body through the arteries and returns by way of the veins.

Realdo Colombo

De Re AnatomicaRenaldus ColumbusRealdo Columbo
Italian physician Realdo Colombo (c.
Colombo made several important advances in anatomy, including the discovery of the pulmonary circuit which paved the way for William Harvey's discovery of circulation years later.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are the pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary veins.

Tricuspid valve

tricuspidtricuspid valvesheart
From the right atrium, the blood is pumped through the tricuspid valve (or right atrioventricular valve), into the right ventricle.