Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary embolipulmonary emboluspulmonary thrombosispulmonary thromboembolismblood clots in the lungslung embolismpulmonary embolismsbilateral pulmonary embolusblood clot in the lungbreak up and be transported in pieces to the lung
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).wikipedia
753 Related Articles

Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.
Serious and relatively common causes include acute coronary syndrome such as a heart attack (31%), pulmonary embolism (2%), pneumothorax, pericarditis (4%), aortic dissection (1%), and esophageal rupture.

Syncope (medicine)

syncopefaintingfainted
Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.
Heart related causes may include an abnormal heart rhythm, problems with the heart valves or heart muscle and blockages of blood vessels from a pulmonary embolism or aortic dissection among others.

Warfarin

CoumadinAthrombinAthrombin-K
Treatment is with anticoagulants such as heparin, warfarin or one of the direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs).
It is commonly used to treat blood clots such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent stroke in people who have atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease or artificial heart valves.

Venous thrombosis

venous thromboembolismthromboembolismthromboembolic disease
Together, deep vein thrombosis and PE are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE).
If the thrombus breaks off (embolizes) and flows towards the lungs, it can become a pulmonary embolism (PE), a blood clot in the lungs.

Embolism

embolicerebral embolismembolus
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Sometimes, multiple classifications apply; for instance a pulmonary embolism is classified as an arterial embolism as well, in the sense that the clot follows the pulmonary artery carrying deoxygenated blood away from the heart.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.

Hormone replacement therapy

menopausal hormone therapyhormone therapyestrogen replacement therapy
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.
A Cochrane review suggested that women starting HRT less than 10 years after menopause had lower mortality and coronary heart disease, without any strong effect on the risk of stroke and pulmonary embolism.

Heparin

unfractionated heparinHeparin sodiumVitrum AB
Treatment is with anticoagulants such as heparin, warfarin or one of the direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs).

Thrombolysis

thrombolyticthrombolytic therapythrombolytic drug
Severe cases may require thrombolysis using medication such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) given intravenously or through a catheter, and some may require surgery (a pulmonary thrombectomy).
It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms.

Shock (circulatory)

shockcirculatory shocktraumatic shock
Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death. More severe cases can include signs such as cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips and fingers), collapse, and circulatory instability because of decreased blood flow through the lungs and into the left side of the heart.

Tachypnea

rapid breathingtachypnoeaincreased rate of breathing
Signs of a PE include low blood oxygen levels, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate, and sometimes a mild fever.
Amongst pathophysiological causes, tachypnea can be a symptom of sepsis, compensation for diabetic ketoacidosis or other metabolic acidosis, pneumonia, pleural effusion, carbon monoxide poisoning, pulmonary embolism, asthma, COPD, laryngospasm, allergic reaction causing airway edema, foreign body aspiration, tracheobronchomalacia, congestive heart failure, anxiety states, or many other medical issues.

Pleural effusion

pleuraleffusionpleural effusions
A pleural effusion is sometimes present that is exudative, detectable by decreased percussion note, audible breath sounds, and vocal resonance.
Pulmonary emboli were once thought to cause transudative effusions, but have been recently shown to be exudative.

Tissue plasminogen activator

tPAPLATrecombinant tissue plasminogen activator
Severe cases may require thrombolysis using medication such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) given intravenously or through a catheter, and some may require surgery (a pulmonary thrombectomy).
tPA is used in some cases of diseases that feature blood clots, such as pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke, in a medical treatment called thrombolysis.

Prothrombin G20210A

prothrombin mutation prothrombin G20210A mutationF2 20210A
Prothrombin G20210A is a genetic condition that increases the risk of blood clots including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Hemoptysis

coughing up bloodhaemoptysishæmoptysis
Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.
Less common causes include aspergilloma, bronchiectasis, coccidioidomycosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonic plague, and cystic fibrosis.

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.
It is most commonly due to heart failure from cardiac arrest or arrhythmias, or from reduced cardiac output as a result of myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pericardial effusion, or bleeding.

Bed rest

rest curebedrestbed-rest
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.
The danger is that the clot may become dislodged and travel to the lungs (a pulmonary embolism).

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism.

D-dimer

D dimerD-dimer titrationquantitative D-dimer
If the risk is low, a blood test known as a D-dimer may rule out the condition.
D-dimer testing is of clinical use when there is a suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.
The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, bleeding (such as gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic rupture, or intracranial hemorrhage), overdose, drowning and pulmonary embolism.

Deep vein thrombosis

deep venous thrombosisdeep-vein thrombosisDVT
Together, deep vein thrombosis and PE are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Symptoms of a blood clot in the leg may also be present, such as a red, warm, swollen, and painful leg.
Complications may include pulmonary embolism, as a result of detachment of a clot which travels to the lungs, and post-thrombotic syndrome.

Cyanosis

cyanoticbluish skinBlue discoloration of the skin
More severe cases can include signs such as cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips and fingers), collapse, and circulatory instability because of decreased blood flow through the lungs and into the left side of the heart.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary artery pressure
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
This may occur as a result of heart problems such as heart failure, lung or airway disease such as COPD or scleroderma, or thromboembolic disease such as pulmonary embolism or emboli seen in sickle cell anaemia.

Factor VIII

VIIIantihemophilic factorCoagulation factor VIII
This will include testing ("thrombophilia screen") for Factor V Leiden mutation, antiphospholipid antibodies, protein C and S and antithrombin levels, and later prothrombin mutation, MTHFR mutation, Factor VIII concentration and rarer inherited coagulation abnormalities.
People with high levels of factor VIII are at increased risk for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuriaparoxysmal hemoglobinuria
These may develop in common sites (deep vein thrombosis of the leg and resultant pulmonary embolism when these clots break off and enter the lungs), but in PNH blood clots may also form in more unusual sites: the hepatic vein (causing Budd-Chiari syndrome), the portal vein of the liver (causing portal vein thrombosis), the superior or inferior mesenteric vein (causing mesenteric ischemia) and veins of the skin.