Pulse dialing

dial pulsepulse diallingpulse dialdial pulsesLoop DisconnectDial tappingdiallingdialsline loop-break pulsesloop disconnect dialing
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.wikipedia
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Rotary dial

dialrotary telephonerotary phone
Historically, the most common device to produce such pulse trains is the rotary dial of the telephone, lending the technology another name, rotary dialing.
A rotary dial is a component of a telephone or a telephone switchboard that implements a signaling technology in telecommunications known as pulse dialing.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
Historically, the most common device to produce such pulse trains is the rotary dial of the telephone, lending the technology another name, rotary dialing.
A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse dialing, sending electrical pulses, that the exchange can count to get the telephone number (as of 2010 many exchanges were still equipped to handle pulse dialing).

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.
The switches form an electrical connection between the two users and the setting of these switches is determined electronically when the caller dials the number.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
Automatic telephone exchange systems were developed in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Probably the most common form of communicating dialed digits between electromechanical switches was sending dial pulses, equivalent to a rotary dial's pulsing, but sent over trunk circuits between switches.

Push-button telephone

10- or 12-button touch-tone telephonespush-buttonpush-button dialing
The Touch-Tone system used push-button telephones.
Over the next few decades touch-tone service replaced traditional pulse dialing technology and it eventually became a world-wide standard for telecommunication signaling.

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

DTMFtouch-tonetouch tone
In 1963, the Bell System introduced to the public its dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) technology under the name Touch-Tone, which was a trademark in the U.S. until 1984.
Prior to the development of DTMF, telephone numbers were dialed by users with a loop-disconnect (LD) signaling, more commonly known as pulse dialing (dial pulse, DP) in the U.S. It functions by interrupting the current in the local loop between the telephone exchange and the calling party's telephone at a precise rate with a switch in the telephone that is operated by the rotary dial as it spins back to its rest position after having been rotated to each desired number.

Panel switch

panelother exchange typespanel dial systems
These included access lines to the Panel switch in the 1920s, Crossbar systems, the later version (7A2) of the Rotary system, and the earlier 1970s stored program control exchanges.
While the Strowger (step-by-step) switch moved under direct control of dial pulses that came from the telephone dial, the more sophisticated Panel switch had senders, which registered and stored the digits that the customer dialed, and then translated the received digits into numbers appropriate to drive the selectors to their desired position: District Brush, District Group, Office Brush, Office Group, Incoming Brush, Incoming Group, Final Brush, Final Tens, Final Units.

Signaling (telecommunications)

signalsignalingsignalling
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.
In the first half of the 20th century, addressing formation is done by using a rotary dial, which rapidly breaks the line current into pulses, with the number of pulses conveying the address.

Local loop

subscriber lineloopsubscriber loop
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.

Code

encodingencodedencode
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.

Arabic numerals

Arabic numeralArabicnumbers
This lends the method the often used name loop disconnect dialing. In the most common variant of pulse dialing, decadic dialing, each of the ten Arabic numerals are encoded in a sequence of up to ten pulses.

Pulse (signal processing)

pulsepulsespulsing
This lends the method the often used name loop disconnect dialing. In the most common variant of pulse dialing, decadic dialing, each of the ten Arabic numerals are encoded in a sequence of up to ten pulses.

Pulse wave

pulsepulse trainpulsed
Historically, the most common device to produce such pulse trains is the rotary dial of the telephone, lending the technology another name, rotary dialing.

Switch

switchestoggle switchelectrical switch
The pulse repetition rate was historically determined based on the response time needed for electromechanical switching systems to operate reliably.

Telephone number

phone numbertelephone numbersphone numbers
For identification, telephone subscribers were assigned a telephone number unique to each circuit.

Hilborne Roosevelt

Hillborn RooseveltHillborne RooseveltRoosevelt
An automatic switch-hook was designed by Hilborne Roosevelt.

Almon Brown Strowger

Almon B. StrowgerStrowger
The first commercial automatic telephone exchange, designed by Almon Brown Strowger, opened in La Porte, Indiana on 3 November 1892, and used two telegraph-type keys on the telephone, which had to be operated the correct number of times to control the vertical and horizontal relay magnets in the exchange.

La Porte, Indiana

La PorteLaPorteLaPorte, Indiana
The first commercial automatic telephone exchange, designed by Almon Brown Strowger, opened in La Porte, Indiana on 3 November 1892, and used two telegraph-type keys on the telephone, which had to be operated the correct number of times to control the vertical and horizontal relay magnets in the exchange.

Indiana

INState of IndianaInd.
The first commercial automatic telephone exchange, designed by Almon Brown Strowger, opened in La Porte, Indiana on 3 November 1892, and used two telegraph-type keys on the telephone, which had to be operated the correct number of times to control the vertical and horizontal relay magnets in the exchange.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
Strowger also filed the first patent for a rotary dial in 1891.

Centrifugal governor

governorfly-ball governorflyball governor
This mechanism was soon refined to include a recoil spring and a centrifugal governor to control the recoil speed.

Post Office Telecommunications

Post OfficePost Office TelecomsUK Post Office
The British (GPO, later Post Office Telecommunications) standard for Strowger switch exchanges has been 10 impulses per second (allowable range 7 to 12) and a 66% break ratio (allowable range 63% to 72%)

Strowger switch

Strowgerstep-by-stepstep by step
The British (GPO, later Post Office Telecommunications) standard for Strowger switch exchanges has been 10 impulses per second (allowable range 7 to 12) and a 66% break ratio (allowable range 63% to 72%)

Unary numeral system

unaryunary notation
In most switching systems one pulse is used for the digit 1, two pulses for 2, and so on, with ten pulses for the digit 0; this makes the code unary, excepting the digit 0.

Rotary system

RotaryRotary exchanges
These included access lines to the Panel switch in the 1920s, Crossbar systems, the later version (7A2) of the Rotary system, and the earlier 1970s stored program control exchanges.