Pulse oximetry

pulse oximeteroximetryoximeterpulse oximetersblood oxygenationoxygen saturation(peripheral) pulse oximeterBlood Oxygen Monitordesaturation in the person's O 2 levelsdissolved gas
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (S O 2 ).wikipedia
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Glenn Allan Millikan

Glenn MillikanGlenn
The original oximeter was made by Glenn Allan Millikan in the 1940s.
Millikan invented the first practical, portable pulse oximeter in 1940–1942.

Masimo

In 1995, Masimo introduced Signal Extraction Technology (SET) that could measure accurately during patient motion and low perfusion by separating the arterial signal from the venous and other signals.
The company sells more pulse oximetry to hospitals than any other company.

Biox

It was commercialized by Biox in 1980.
Biox is an American medical technology company known for the development of the first widely used pulse oximeter.

Nihon Kohden

Nihon Kohden Corporation
Pulse oximetry was developed in 1972, by Takuo Aoyagi and Michio Kishi, bioengineers, at Nihon Kohden using the ratio of red to infrared light absorption of pulsating components at the measuring site.
In 1972, Takuo Aoyagi, a researcher at the company, invented and patented the basic principles of pulse oximetry.

Newborn Foundation

The Newborn Foundation
Today, The Newborn Foundation has documented near universal screening in the United States and international screening is rapidly expanding.
The organization has been integral in the policy development, adoption and implementation of technologies for early detection, intervention and care of the youngest patients, including the landmark addition of universal newborn pulse oximetry (CCHD) screening to the federal Routine Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP).

Photoplethysmogram

PhotoplethysmographphotoplethysmographyPPG
A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly monitors the oxygen saturation of a patient's blood (as opposed to measuring oxygen saturation directly through a blood sample) and changes in blood volume in the skin, producing a photoplethysmogram that may be further processed into other measurements.
A PPG is often obtained by using a pulse oximeter which illuminates the skin and measures changes in light absorption.

Pulse

pulse ratepulsationheartbeat
It stores and records both pulse rate and SpO2 in 1 second intervals and has been shown in one study to help to detect sleep disordered breathing in surgical patients.
Applied capture of variances of light signal from the blood component hemoglobin under oxygenated vs. deoxygenated conditions allows the technology of pulse oximetry.

Hemoglobin

haemoglobinoxyhemoglobindeoxyhemoglobin
More specifically, it measures what percentage of hemoglobin, the protein in blood that carries oxygen, is loaded.
This difference is used for the measurement of the amount of oxygen in a patient's blood by an instrument called a pulse oximeter.

Polysomnography

polysomnogramsleep studypolysomnographic
High-resolution pulse oximetry (HRPO) has been developed for in-home sleep apnea screening and testing in patients for whom it is impractical to perform polysomnography.
After the identification of the sleep disorder sleep apnea in the 1970s, the breathing functions, respiratory airflow, and respiratory effort indicators were added along with peripheral pulse oximetry.

Oxygen saturation (medicine)

oxygenationoxygen saturationoxygenated
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (S O 2 ).
A pulse oximeter relies on the light absorption characteristics of saturated hemoglobin to give an indication of oxygen saturation.

Arterial blood gas test

arterial blood gasblood gasesarterial blood gases
Though its reading of peripheral oxygen saturation (Sp O 2 ) is not always identical to the more desirable reading of arterial oxygen saturation (Sa O 2 ) from arterial blood gas analysis, the two are correlated well enough that the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse oximetry method is valuable for measuring oxygen saturation in clinical use.
In other levels of care, pulse oximetry plus transcutaneous carbon-dioxide measurement is a less invasive, alternative method of obtaining similar information.

Photodiode

phototransistorphotodiodespinned photodiode
A typical pulse oximeter uses an electronic processor and a pair of small light-emitting diodes (LEDs) facing a photodiode through a translucent part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or an earlobe.
They are also widely used in various medical applications, such as detectors for computed tomography (coupled with scintillators), instruments to analyze samples (immunoassay), and pulse oximeters.

Oxygen saturation

dissolved oxygenblood oxygen saturationcentral venous oxygen saturation
If there is insufficient bloodflow or insufficient hemoglobin in the blood (anemia), tissues can suffer hypoxia despite high oxygen saturation in the blood that does arrive.
Arterial oxygen saturation (Sa O 2 ) is commonly measured using pulse oximetry.

CO-oximeter

CO oximetryCO-oximetry test
A noninvasive method that allows continuous measurement of the dyshemoglobins is the pulse CO-oximeter, which was built in 2005 by Masimo.
The use of 'CO' rather than 'Co' or 'co' is more appropriate since this designation represents a device that measures carbon monoxide (CO) bound to hemoglobin, as distinguished from simple oximetry which measures hemoglobin bound to molecular oxygen—O2Hb—or hemoglobin capable of binding to molecular oxygen—HHb.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
A typical pulse oximeter uses an electronic processor and a pair of small light-emitting diodes (LEDs) facing a photodiode through a translucent part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or an earlobe.
Pulse oximeters use them for measuring oxygen saturation.

Hypopnea

Hypopnea syndromeshallow breathing
Because of their simplicity of use and the ability to provide continuous and immediate oxygen saturation values, pulse oximeters are of critical importance in emergency medicine and are also very useful for patients with respiratory or cardiac problems, especially COPD, or for diagnosis of some sleep disorders such as apnea and hypopnea.
In the context of diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, a hypopnea is not considered to be clinically significant unless there is a 30% or greater reduction in flow lasting for 10 seconds or longer and an associated 4% or greater desaturation in the person's O 2 levels, or if it results in arousal or fragmentation of sleep.

Capnography

capnographcapnometrycapnometer
During procedures done under sedation, capnography provides more useful information, e.g. on the frequency and regularity of ventilation, than pulse oximetry.

Integrated pulmonary index

Integrated pulmonary index (IPI) is a patient pulmonary index which uses information from capnography and pulse oximetry to provide a single value that describes the patient's respiratory status.

Sleep apnea

sleep apnoeaobstructive sleep apneasleep apnea syndromes
Oximetry, which may be performed over one or several nights in a person's home, is a simpler, but less reliable alternative to a polysomnography.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxideCarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
Pulse CO-oximeters estimate carboxyhemoglobin with a non-invasive finger clip similar to a pulse oximeter.

Medical device

medical devicesmedical equipmentmedical instrument
A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly monitors the oxygen saturation of a patient's blood (as opposed to measuring oxygen saturation directly through a blood sample) and changes in blood volume in the skin, producing a photoplethysmogram that may be further processed into other measurements.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Though its reading of peripheral oxygen saturation (Sp O 2 ) is not always identical to the more desirable reading of arterial oxygen saturation (Sa O 2 ) from arterial blood gas analysis, the two are correlated well enough that the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse oximetry method is valuable for measuring oxygen saturation in clinical use.

Finger

fingertipfingersdigits
In its most common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor device is placed on a thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the case of an infant, across a foot.

Earlobe

ear lobeearlobesAttached earlobe
In its most common (transmissive) application mode, a sensor device is placed on a thin part of the patient's body, usually a fingertip or earlobe, or in the case of an infant, across a foot.