Punjab

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Chandigarh
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

- Punjab

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Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
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GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region between Pakistan and India, it is bounded locally by Sindh to the south, Balochistan to the west, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, the Islamabad Capital Territory to the north, and the Pakistani-administered territory of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast.

Punjabis

Map showing the Punjabi Sikh Empire
The Punjab region, with its rivers
Punjabi-inhabited areas of Pakistan and India (brown)
One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus who fought with Alexander the Great
Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.
Sophia Duleep Singh, a prominent British Punjabi Suffragette and granddaughter of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab (1876–1948)
Sarson da saag, popular vegetable dish of the Punjabi people
Punjabi traditional dress in India

The Punjabis (Punjabi (Shahmukhi):, Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) or the Punjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group, associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent presently divided between Pakistan and India.

Punjabi language

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The proportion of people with Punjabi as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
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Punjabi in india
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Punjabi Gurmukhi script
Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo
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Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party.
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Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954
Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982
Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature
Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004
Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi
Punjabi Shahmukhi script
Bulleh Shah poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Munir Niazi poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Gurmukhi alphabet
A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

Punjabi (, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, ), sometimes spelled Panjabi, is an Indo-Aryan language that is natively spoken by the Punjabi people in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.

Balochistan

Arid desert and mountainous geographic historical region in South and Western Asia.

The proportion of people with Balochi as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
The proportion of people with Brahui as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Large Baluch carpet, from the mid 19th century. Alternating rows depict cypress trees and Turkmen Gül motifs in offset coloration. The somber background colors are characteristic of Baluch weavings. This likely was a commission for a tribal Khan or chieftain for ceremonial use.
Baloch children photographed in Ashkutu, Iran, in March 2017

Balochistan borders the Pashtunistan region to the north, Sindh and Punjab to the east, and Persian regions to the west.

Sikhs

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Indus River

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in a large delta in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan.

Indo-Greek Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

Menander I's capital was at Sagala in the Punjab (present-day Sialkot).

Punjabi Hindus

Indo-Aryan ethnic group who are adherents of Hinduism and identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Punjabis.

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. 
Punjab was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in Northern Indian subcontinent.
Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization.
Devi Talab Mandir in Jalandar, Punjab, India.
Durgiana Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, India.

While Punjabi Hindus are mostly found in the Indian state of Punjab today, many have ancestry from the greater Punjab region, an area that was partitioned between India and Pakistan.

Punjabi Muslims

Punjabi Muslims are ethnic Punjabis who are adherents of Islam and are native primarily to the Punjab province of Pakistan, while many have ancestry in the entire Punjab region, split between India and Pakistan in the contemporary era.

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.
Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Muslim Sufi poet

Forming the majority of the Punjabi ethnicity in the greater Punjab region (overall in the South Asia), Punjabi Muslims speak or identify the Punjabi language (under a Perso-Arabic script known as Shahmukhi) as a mother tongue.

India

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalised religion.