Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)Pakistani PunjabWest Punjabprovince of PunjabPunjab PakistanWestern PunjabPunjab Province, PakistanEconomy of Punjab
Punjab (Urdu & پنجاب, ; ) is Pakistan's most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.wikipedia
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Sindh

Sindh ProvinceSindSindh, Pakistan
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber-PakhtunkhwaNorth-West Frontier ProvinceNorth West Frontier Province
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
Within Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Punjab, Balochistan, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan and Islamabad.

Islamabad Capital Territory

Capital TerritoryICTIslamabad
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
The territory is bounded by Punjab on the south, west and east and by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa on the north.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert (also known as the "Great Indian Desert") and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley.

Punjab, India

PunjabIndian PunjabPunjab state
It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.
It is bordered by the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west.

Administrative units of Pakistan

ProvinceRegionTerritory
Punjab (Urdu & پنجاب, ; ) is Pakistan's most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
The administrative units of Pakistan (undefined) consist of four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh), two autonomous territories (Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).

Azad Kashmir

Azad Jammu and KashmirAzad Jammu & KashmirKashmir
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
The territory also borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west.

Taxila, Pakistan

Taxilamodern TaxilaAncient Taxila
Punjab features heavily in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, and is home to Taxila, site of what is considered by many to be the oldest university in the world.
Taxila (undefined), is a city in Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan.

Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabi
Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir.
In British India, until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi; and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Punjab (Urdu & پنجاب, ; ) is Pakistan's most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.

Mong, Punjab

Mong
In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab.
Mong or Mung is a town and Union Council of Mandi Bahauddin District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Battle of the Hydaspes

Battle of the Hydaspes RiverBattle of HydaspesHydaspes
In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab.
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Jhelum River (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).

Taxila

Takshashilaancient TaxilaTakshasila
Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archaeological excavations at Taxila, and the Rohtas Fort.
Taxila (from Pāli Brahmi: 𑀢𑀔𑁆𑀔𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸, Takhkhasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला, undefined meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is an important archaeological site located in the modern city with the same name in Punjab, Pakistan.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus Valley
The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa.
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.

Nankana Sahib

NankanaTalwandiGurudwara Nankana Sahib
The founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, was born in the Punjab town of Nankana Sahib near Lahore.
Nankana Sahib (Urdu and undefined) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Rohtas Fort

Rohtas Rohtas CityRohtas City
Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archaeological excavations at Taxila, and the Rohtas Fort.
Rohtas Fort (Punjabi, undefined; Qila Rohtas) is a 16th-century fortress located near the city of Jehlum in the Pakistani province of Punjab.The fortress was built during the reign of Sher Shah Suri

Harappa

HarrappaHarrapaHarappan
The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa.
Harappa (Urdu/) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km west of Sahiwal.

Multan

MooltanMultan, PakistanMultan City
Agriculture flourished and trading cities (such as Multan and Lahore) grew in wealth.
Multan (undefined; ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.

Indo-Greek Kingdom

Indo-GreekIndo-GreeksIndo-Greek Kingdoms
Punjab was part of both classical Western Eurasian empires including the Achaemenid, Macedonian, Kushan, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek and Hindu Shahi empires, as well as Indo-Gangetic (North Indian) empires such as that of the Maurya and Gupta.
The expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila, (modern Punjab (Pakistan)), Pushkalavati and Sagala.

Ghaznavids

Ghaznavid EmpireGhaznavidGhaznavid dynasty
In the subsequent centuries, Punjab was invaded and conquered by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, Mughals, Durranis and the Sikhs.
Under the reign of Mas'ud I, the Ghaznavid dynasty began losing control over its western territories to the Seljuq dynasty after the Battle of Dandanaqan, resulting in a restriction of its holdings to modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan (Punjab and Balochistan).

Panjnad River

PanjnadPanjnad River (Pakistan)
The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and eventually into the Arabian Sea.
Panjnad River (Urdu/Punjabi Shahmukhi:, (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river at the extreme end of Bahawalpur district in Punjab, Pakistan.

Sialkot

SealkoteSialkot citySialkot Sector
Alexander invested many troops, eventually killing 17,000 Cathians in this battle, and the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot) was razed to the ground.
Sialkot (Urdu and ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.

Hindko

Hindko dialectNorthern HindkoHindko language
However, Punjabi, Kohistani, and Hindko are derived from the Indo-Aryan Prakrits that were spoken in Gandhara and surrounding areas.
Hindko (undefined ALA-LC: ) is a cover term for a diverse group of Lahnda (Western Punjabi) dialects spoken by people of various ethnic backgrounds in several discontinuous areas in northwestern Pakistan, primarily in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab.

Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinentMuslim conquests on the Indian subcontinentMuslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent
The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE.
Al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra took a detachment through the Khyber pass towards Multan in Southern Punjab in modern-day Pakistan in 664 AD, then pushed south into Kikan, and may have also raided Quandabil.

Punjabi language

PunjabiPanjabiPunjabi-language
However, Punjabi, Kohistani, and Hindko are derived from the Indo-Aryan Prakrits that were spoken in Gandhara and surrounding areas.
Gurmukhi is the official script for the language in Punjab, India while Shahmukhi is used in Punjab, Pakistan; other national and local scripts have also been in use historically and currently, as discussed in.