Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabiSouthern PunjabSouth Punjabthe PunjabPunjab (region)Greater PunjabPunjaubBritish Punjab
The Punjab (,, ; native pronunciation: ), also spelled and romanised as Panjāb, is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.wikipedia
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Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shah AbdaliAhmed Shah AbdaliAhmed Shah Durrani
The Afghan forces of Durrani Empire also known as Afghan Empire under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani entered Punjab in 1749, and captured Punjab, with Lahore being governed by Pashtuns, and Kashmir regions.
Apart from invading the Punjab region three times between the years 1747–1753, he captured Herat in 1750.

Third Battle of Panipat

Battle of PanipatBattle of Panipat (1761)Panipat
Following Third Battle of Panipat against Marathas, Durranis reconsolidated its power and dominion over Punjab, Kashmir regions.
Baji Rao's son Balaji Baji Rao further increased the territory under Maratha control by invading Punjab in 1758.

Punjabi Tamba and Kurta

Muktsari kurta pajamasarong-like garmentTehmat/Tamba
Punjabi Kurta and Tamba are traditional costume for men of Punjab.

Phulkari

Phulkaris
Phulkaris and Baghs were worn by women all over Punjab during marriage festivals and other joyous occasions.

Irrigation

irrigatedirrigateirrigation system
During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 C. The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems.

Punjabi cuisine

PunjabicuisinePunjab
Punjabi cuisine is a culinary style originating in the Punjab, a region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided between Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan.

Humayun

Emperor HumayunHamayunHumayun-nama
Instead, Kamran approached Sher Shah and proposed that he actually revolt against his brother and side with Sher Shah in return for most of the Punjab.

Music of Punjab

PunjabiPunjabi musicmusic
Music of Punjab (in Punjabi پنجاب دی موسیقی, ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦਾ ਸੰਗੀਤ) reflects the traditions of the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, currently divided into two parts: East Punjab (India) and West Punjab (Pakistan).

List of cities in the Punjab region by population

Largest city
The following is a list of the largest cities in the Punjab region by population located in modern divisions which were part of the British Punjab Province as at 1947 when the modern countries of India and Pakistan were created.

Punjabi dialects

PunjabiPunjabi dialectdialect of Punjabi
The Punjabi dialects are the series of dialects spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.

Cholistan Desert

Cholistan
Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert.

Kushan Empire

KushanKushansKushana
The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others.
Following territory losses in the west (Bactria lost to the Kushano-Sasanians), and in the east (loss of Mathura to the Gupta Empire), several "Little Kushans" are known, who ruled locally in the area of Punjab with their capital at Taxila: Vasudeva II (270-300 CE), Mahi (300-305 CE), Shaka (305-335 CE) and Kipunada (335-350 CE).

Majhi dialect

MajhiPunjabi
The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries.
Majhi is the standard dialect of Punjabi and is spoken in the Majha region of the Punjab.

Shahmukhi alphabet

ShahmukhiPunjabiShahmukhi script
Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script.
The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of the Punjab; it became the conventional writing style for the Muslim populace of the Pakistani province of Punjab following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, while the largely Hindu and Sikh modern-day state of Punjab, India adopted the Gurmukhi script to record the Punjabi language.

Shalwar kameez

salwar kameezkameezshalwar
The shalwar and kameez were introduced into South Asia after the arrival of Muslims in the north in the 13th century: at first worn by Muslim women, their use gradually spread, making them a regional style, especially in the historical Punjab region.

Punjabi ghagra

The Punjabi ghagra is a four-piece outfit known as tewar or 'ti-or' which was traditionally worn by Punjabi women throughout the Punjab region with the outfit comprising a head scarf (Phulkari), kurta or kurti, ghagra and either a suthan (baggy trousers with a tight band at the ankles) or the Punjabi salwar.

Udham Singh

Shaheed Udham SinghShaheed Uddham SinghSardar Udham Singh
During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.
In its 18 March 1940 issue, Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote, "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget".

Chak (village)

ChakChaksChak 8
To enhance the government revenue during the British Raj, new canals were built to bring the barani (rainfed) areas under cultivation by introducing the irrigation to the bangar (upland) areas of Punjab region.

Folk dances of Punjab

Punjabi dancedance traditionPunjabi folk dances
Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi people indigenous to the Punjab region, straddling the border of India and Pakistan.

East Punjab

PunjabEastern PunjabEast
The princely states of the Punjab region (which had not been British possessions, so could not be partitioned by the British) all (except Bahawalpur (princely state), which acceded to Dominion of Pakistan) acceded to the new Dominion of India and were combined into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU).

Babur

BabarZahir-ud-din Muhammad BaburBabur Beg
Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfill the legacy of his ancestor Timur, since it used to be part of his empire.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus Valley
The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others.
The Cemetery H culture was in Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh, the Jhukar culture was in Sindh, and the Rangpur culture (characterised by Lustrous Red Ware pottery) was in Gujarat.

Khalsa

AmritdhariKhalsa PanthKhalsa Sikh
The boundaries of this state stretched from Tibet to Afghanistan and from Kashmir to Sutlej in the south and included regions of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Kashmir, Ladakh, etc. The "Sarkar-i-Khalsa" was dissolved during two wars fought against the British between 1846 and 1849.

Muhammad of Ghor

Muhammad GhoriMu'izz al-Din MuhammadMohammad Ghori
A revolt shortly broke out in Punjab and the surrounding regions, which forced Mu'izz to make order in the region before mounting a counter-attack against his enemies.

Maghi

It follows the festival of Lohri in north India, particularly popular in the Punjab region.