Map showing the Punjabi Sikh Empire
The Punjab region, with its rivers
Punjabi-inhabited areas of Pakistan and India (brown)
One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab, King Porus who fought with Alexander the Great
Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.
Sophia Duleep Singh, a prominent British Punjabi Suffragette and granddaughter of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab (1876–1948)
Sarson da saag, popular vegetable dish of the Punjabi people
Punjabi traditional dress in India

Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group, associated with the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent presently divided between Pakistan and India.

- Punjabis

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Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

The predominant ethnolinguistic group of the Punjab region is the Punjabi people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language.

Punjabi Muslims

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.
Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Muslim Sufi poet

Punjabi Muslims are ethnic Punjabis who are adherents of Islam and are native primarily to the Punjab province of Pakistan, while many have ancestry in the entire Punjab region, split between India and Pakistan in the contemporary era.

Punjabi Hindus

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. 
Punjab was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in Northern Indian subcontinent.
Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization.
Devi Talab Mandir in Jalandar, Punjab, India.
Durgiana Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Punjabi Hindus are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group who are adherents of Hinduism and identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Punjabis.

Punjab, India

State in northern India.

1,500 years old Bathinda Fort, pictured in 1906
A rare Tanjore style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus and Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana
Sikh Empire
Darbar of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, showing people of all religions.
British Punjab Province, before 1947
Wagah Border is situated between Amritsar and Lahore, became the main border crossing after partition of Punjab and is known for its elaborate ceremony
Town Hall of Amritsar is the world's only partition museum
Agricultural fields of Punjab during the monsoon
Agriculture in Punjab
Punjab Legislative Assembly building
Districts of Punjab along with their headquarters (Before 14 May 2021, when Malerkotla was declared as 23rd district)
Hall Gate of Amritsar
Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport in Amritsar
View of Ludhiana Railway Station
Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand
Khalsa College, Amritsar
The Ranjit Singh Block at Guru Nanak Dev University
Guru Gobind Singh Bhawan at Punjabi University
Punjabi jutti
Malwai Gidha
Punjabi women using a traditional method of spinning
Bhangra Dance
Vegetarian Punjabi Thaali
Teeyan celebration in Punjab
Kabbadi (Circle Style)
PCA Stadium under lights at Mohali
Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar is a major pilgrimage site in Punjab and is also widely visited for its unique architecture
Moti Bagh Palace in Patiala

The main ethnic groups are the Punjabis, with Sikhs and Hindus as the dominant religious groups.


Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the British Army began recruiting significant numbers of Sikhs and Punjabis.

First Anglo-Sikh War

Fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company in 1845 and 1846 in and around the Ferozepur district of Punjab.

Topographical map of the Punjab; The Land of Five Rivers
The Sikh trophy guns
Death of Jawahar Singh, Vizier of Lahore – Illustrated London News, 29 November 1845
Raja Lal Singh, who led Sikh forces against the British during the First Anglo-Sikh War, 1846
Outpost of Rhodawala
The Battle of Ferozeshah
The Battle of Aliwal
British troops crossing the Sutlej (Punjab) in boats. 10 February 1846
Maharaja Dalip Singh, entering his palace in Lahore, escorted by British troops after the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–46)
Grand field day at Calcutta – arrival of the captured Sikh guns

Although the leaders and principal units of the army were Sikhs, there were also Punjabi, Pakhtun and Kashmiri infantry units.

Punjabi language

The proportion of people with Punjabi as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Punjabi in india
Punjabi Gurmukhi script
Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo
Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party.
Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954
Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982
Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature
Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004
Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi
Punjabi Shahmukhi script
Bulleh Shah poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Munir Niazi poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Gurmukhi alphabet
A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

Punjabi (, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, ), sometimes spelled Panjabi, is an Indo-Aryan language that is natively spoken by the Punjabi people in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Province of Pakistan.

Gold coin of Kushan king Kanishka II, featuring lord Shiva (200–220 AD)
Approximate boundaries of the Gandharan Empire; Alexander's Army also passed through this area centered on the modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Relics of the Buddha from the ruins of the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar – now in Mandalay, Myanmar
Asia in 565 CE, showing the Shahi kingdoms, centered on modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
Bacha Khan with Mahatma Gandhi
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan
Northern parts of the province feature forests and dramatic mountain scenery, as in Swat District.
Ghabral, Swat Valley
A map of the districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with their names. Colors correspond to divisions.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's dominance: forestry
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

Their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Baloch people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but that is not the case for Pashtun people.

Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse collection of Indo-European ethnolinguistic groups speaking Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent.

1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.
Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard, OCP, and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan migrations.

Punjabi people

Partition of India

The partition of India in 1947 divided British India into two independent dominions: India and Pakistan.

Prevailing religions of the British Indian Empire (1901)
British Indian Empire in The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.
Indian medical orderlies attending to wounded soldiers with the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia during World War I
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (seated in the carriage, on the right, eyes downcast, with black flat-top hat) receives a big welcome in Karachi in 1916 after his return to India from South Africa
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, seated, third from the left, was a supporter of the Lucknow Pact, which, in 1916, ended the three-way rift between the Extremists, the Moderates and the League
Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Congress in which Azad was elected president for the second time
Chaudhari Khaliquzzaman (left) seconding the 1940 Lahore Resolution of the All-India Muslim League with Jinnah (right) presiding, and Liaquat Ali Khan centre
The Partition of India: green regions were all part of Pakistan by 1948, and orange ones part of India. The darker-shaded regions represent the Punjab and Bengal provinces partitioned by the Radcliffe Line. The grey areas represent some of the key princely states that were eventually integrated into India or Pakistan.
Mountbatten with a countdown calendar to the Transfer of Power in the background
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947.
A refugee special train at Ambala Station during the partition of India
A crowd of Muslims at the Old Fort (Purana Qila) in Delhi, which had been converted into a vast camp for Muslim refugees waiting to be transported to Pakistan. Manchester Guardian, 27 September 1947.
Four nations (India, Pakistan, Dominion of Ceylon, and Union of Burma) that gained independence in 1947 and 1948
1909 Percentage of Hindus.
1909 Percentage of Muslims.
1909 Percentage of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains.

The second source of opposition is the concept that while Indians are not one nation, neither are the Muslims or Hindus of the subcontinent, and it is instead the relatively homogeneous provincial units of the subcontinent which are true nations and deserving of sovereignty; the Baloch has presented this view, Sindhi, and Pashtun sub-nationalities of Pakistan and the Assamese and Punjabi sub-nationalities of India.