Push technology

push notificationspush notificationpushpushedHTTP Streamingserver pushlong pollingpush datapush mediapushes
Push notifications are small messages that can reach audiences anywhere and anytime.wikipedia
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Pull technology

pullpullingclient pull
It is contrasted with pull/get, where the request for the transmission of information is initiated by the receiver or client.
The reverse is known as push technology, where the server pushes data to clients.

Instant messaging

instant messengerIMinstant message
Synchronous conferencing and instant messaging are typical examples of push services.
Some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed.

Server (computing)

serverserversserver computer
Push technology, or server push, is a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server.
Thereafter, the pub–sub server forwards matching messages to the clients without any further requests: the server pushes messages to the client, rather than the client pulling messages from the server as in request–response.

Push email

Push e-mailmobile e-mailpush mail
Email may also be a push system: SMTP is a push protocol (see Push e-mail).
Push email is an email system that provides an always-on capability, in which new email is actively transferred (pushed) as it arrives by the mail delivery agent (MDA) (commonly called mail server) to the mail user agent (MUA), also called the email client.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SMTP8BITMIMEemail protocol
Email may also be a push system: SMTP is a push protocol (see Push e-mail).
Both use a store and forward mechanism and are examples of push technology.

PointCast (dotcom)

PointCastPointCast Network
Another example is the PointCast Network, which was widely adopted in the 1990s.
The PointCast Network used push technology, which was a hot concept at the time, and received enormous press coverage when it launched in beta form on February 13, 1996.

Web application

web-basedweb applicationsweb app
Other uses of push-enabled web applications include software updates distribution ("push updates"), market data distribution (stock tickers), online chat/messaging systems (webchat), auctions, online betting and gaming, sport results, monitoring consoles, and sensor network monitoring.

Channel Definition Format

CDF CDFChannels
Both Netscape and Microsoft integrated push technology through the Channel Definition Format (CDF) into their software at the height of the browser wars, but it was never very popular.
Submitted to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in March 1997 for consideration as a web standard, CDF marked Microsoft's attempt to capitalize on the push technology trend led by PointCast.

Server-sent events

SSE
On September 1, 2006, the Opera web browser implemented this new experimental system in a feature called "Server-Sent Events".
Server-Sent Events (SSE) is a server push technology enabling a client to receive automatic updates from a server via HTTP connection.

Publish–subscribe pattern

publish/subscribepublish-subscribepublish–subscribe
This is called a publish/subscribe model.

Netscape

Netscape Communications CorporationNetscape CommunicationsNetscape Communications Corp.
Both Netscape and Microsoft integrated push technology through the Channel Definition Format (CDF) into their software at the height of the browser wars, but it was never very popular. Another mechanism is related to a special MIME type called, which was introduced by Netscape in 1995.
It also pioneered the development of push technology, which effectively allowed websites to send regular updates of information (weather, stock updates, package tracking, etc.) directly to a user's desktop (aka "webtop"); Netscape's implementation of this was named Netcaster.

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensionsmultipart/form-datamedia type
Another mechanism is related to a special MIME type called, which was introduced by Netscape in 1995.
The content type multipart/x-mixed-replace was developed as part of a technology to emulate server push and streaming over HTTP.

Windows Push Notification Service

Windows Notification ServiceWNS
November 2015, Microsoft announced that the Windows Notification Service would be expanded to make use of the Universal Windows Platform architecture, allowing for push data to be sent to Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile, Xbox, as well as other supported platforms using universal API calls and POST requests.
It allows for developers to send push data ("toast" and "tile" updates) to Windows and Universal Windows Platform applications which implement the feature.

Comet (programming)

CometComet (also called "Reverse Ajax)
Comet is a web application model in which a long-held HTTPS request allows a web server to push data to a browser, without the browser explicitly requesting it.

WebSocket

WebSocketsWeb SocketsWeb-sockets
As a part of HTML5 the WebSocket API allows a web server and client to communicate over a full-duplex TCP connection.

Lightstreamer

Lightstreamer is a web-based asynchronous messaging project, implementing the WebSocket protocol, the Comet model, the push technology paradigm, and the real-time web practices.

BOSH (protocol)

BOSHBidirectional-streams Over Synchronous HTTP (BOSH)
For example, BOSH is a popular, long-lived HTTP technique used as a long-polling alternative to a continuous TCP connection when such a connection is difficult or impossible to employ directly (e.g., in a web browser); it is also an underlying technology in the XMPP, which Apple uses for its iCloud push support.

Google Cloud Messaging

GCM
(It has since been replaced by Google Cloud Messaging and then Firebase Cloud Messaging.)
The GCM has the ability to send push notifications, deep-linking commands, and application data.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Push technology, or server push, is a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server.

Client (computing)

clientclientsclient software
It is contrasted with pull/get, where the request for the transmission of information is initiated by the receiver or client.

Polling (computer science)

pollingpollpolled
Push is sometimes emulated with a polling technique, particularly under circumstances where a real push is not possible, such as sites with security policies that require rejection of incoming HTTP/S requests.

Synchronous conferencing

chatconferencingMulti-user chat
Synchronous conferencing and instant messaging are typical examples of push services.

Computer file

filefilescomputer files
Chat messages and sometimes files are pushed to the user as soon as they are received by the messaging service.