Putamen

bilateral putamencaudate putamenputaminal
"Putamen" is also a botanical term for the stone in a fruit, such as a peach.wikipedia
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Caudate nucleus

caudatecaudate nucleibilateral caudate nucleus
The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum.
Together with the putamen, the caudate forms the dorsal striatum, which is considered a single functional structure; anatomically, it is separated by a large white matter tract, the internal capsule, so it is sometimes also referred to as two structures: the medial dorsal striatum (the caudate) and the lateral dorsal striatum (the putamen).

Claustrum

claustra
Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus, the claustrum, and the thalamus, in addition to many regions of the cerebral cortex.
It is located between the insula laterally and the putamen medially, separated by the extreme and external capsules respectively.

Lentiform nucleus

lenticular nucleuslenticular nucleilentiform
The putamen, together with the globus pallidus, makes up the lentiform nucleus.
The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia.

Internal capsule

genugenu of the internal capsuleposterior limb of internal capsule
The caudate and putamen contain the same types of neurons and circuits – many neuroanatomists consider the dorsal striatum to be a single structure, divided into two parts by a large fiber tract, the internal capsule, passing through the middle.
It carries information past the basal ganglia, separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus.

Basal ganglia

basal nucleibasalbasal ganglia (BG)
It is also one of the structures that comprise the basal nuclei.
The main components of the basal ganglia – as defined functionally – are the striatum; both dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle), globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus.

Striatum

ventral striatumdorsal striatumcorpus striatum
The putamen and caudate nucleus together form the dorsal striatum.
The lentiform nucleus is made up of the larger putamen, and the smaller globus pallidus.

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

fMRIfunctional MRIfunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Since then, more extensive neuronal tracing, stimulation, and imaging research methods (e.g. fMRI, DWI) that allow for investigation of the putamen have been developed.
With these, fMRI can examine a spatial range from millimeters to centimeters, and can hence identify Brodmann areas (centimers), subcortical nuclei such as the caudate, putamen and thalamus, and hippocampal subfields such as the combined dentate gyrus/CA3, CA1, and subiculum.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
These are a group of nuclei in the brain that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem.
The main components of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus accumbens, and the subthalamic nucleus.

Globus pallidus

pallidumpallidalglobal pallidus
Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus, the claustrum, and the thalamus, in addition to many regions of the cerebral cortex. The putamen, together with the globus pallidus, makes up the lentiform nucleus.
This area of the basal ganglia receives input from another area, called the striatum, which has two parts, the caudate nucleus and the putamen.

Disgust

revulsionloathingAppall
It has been theorized that the "putamen plays a role in the perception of contempt and disgust, and may be part of the motor system that's mobilized to take action."
NK's neural damage included the insula and putamen and it was found that NK's overall response to disgust-inducing stimuli was significantly lower than that of controls.

Huntington's disease

HuntingtonHuntington diseaseHuntington’s disease
The most prominent early effects are in a part of the basal ganglia called the neostriatum, which is composed of the caudate nucleus and putamen.

Hatred

hateacrimoniousenmity
Tentative studies have suggested that the putamen may play a role in the so-called "hate circuit" of the brain.
The results showed increased activity in the middle frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insular cortex of the human brain.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
The subcortical volumes of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, and putamen appears smaller in individuals with ADHD compared with controls.

Wilson's disease

Wilson diseaseWilson’s diseasehepatolenticular degeneration
In the brain, most copper is deposited in the basal ganglia, particularly in the putamen and globus pallidus (together called the lenticular nucleus); these areas normally participate in the coordination of movement as well as playing a significant role in neurocognitive processes such as the processing of stimuli and mood regulation.

Forebrain

prosencephalonfore-brainforebrains
The putamen ( meaning: nutshell) is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

Cerebrum

cerebraltelencephalontelencephalic
The putamen ( meaning: nutshell) is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

Substantia nigra

substantia nigra pars reticulatanigralsubstantia nigra pars compacta
Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus, the claustrum, and the thalamus, in addition to many regions of the cerebral cortex.

Thalamus

thalamicMetathalamusthalami
Through various pathways, the putamen is connected to the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus, the claustrum, and the thalamus, in addition to many regions of the cerebral cortex. These are a group of nuclei in the brain that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem.

Learning

associative learninglearnlearning process
A primary function of the putamen is to regulate movements at various stages (e.g. preparation and execution) and influence various types of learning.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin to perform its functions.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicAChacetylcholine (ACh)
It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin to perform its functions.

Enkephalin

enkephalins[ D -Ala 2 , D -Leu 5 ]enkephalinenkephaline
It employs GABA, acetylcholine, and enkephalin to perform its functions.

Degenerative disease

degenerativedegenerative diseasesdegenerative disorder
The putamen also plays a role in degenerative neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
The putamen also plays a role in degenerative neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The word "putamen" is from Latin, referring to that which "falls off in pruning", from "putare", meaning "to prune, to think, or to consider".