Pyroptosis

pro-IL-1β
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.wikipedia
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HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
Some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells.
HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.

Programmed cell death

cell deathcellular agingdeath
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.
Pyroptosis, an inflammatory type of cell death, is uniquely mediated by caspase 1, an enzyme not involved in apoptosis, in response to infection by certain microorganisms.

Inflammasome

inflammasomesinflammasome protein complexinflammasomes,
Caspase-1 is activated during pyroptosis by a large supramolecular complex termed the pyroptosome (also known as an inflammasome).
The N-terminal fragment resulting from this cleavage induces a pro-inflammatory form of programmed cell death distinct from apoptosis, referred to as pyroptosis, and is responsible for secretion of the mature cytokines, presumably through the formation of pores in the plasma membrane.

Caspase 1

caspase-1CASP1Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme
In contrast to apoptosis, pyroptosis requires the function of the enzyme caspase-1.
Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme (ICE) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that proteolytically cleaves other proteins, such as the precursor s of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β and interleukin 18 as well as the pyroptosis inducer Gasdermin D, into active mature peptides.

T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cells
Some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells.
Cell death is triggered when the host cell detects HIV foreign DNA intermediates and initiates a suicidal death pathway in an attempt to protect the host, leading to caspase-1 activation in inflammasomes, thus causing pyroptosis (a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death).

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
The inflammatory response is cell-death independent.
Recent studies demonstrated that caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death, drives CD4 T-cell depletion and inflammation by HIV.

Antimicrobial

anti-microbialantimicrobialsantimicrobial agent
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.

Salmonella

Salmonella poisoningSalmonella typhibacteremic salmonellosis
Some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells. The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
Some examples of pyroptosis include Salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells.

Flagellin

Bacterial flagellindue to flagellin mutationsFLS2
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Shigella

Shigella species.Shigella typhi
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PAMPspathogen-associated molecular patternsPAMP
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Microorganism

microorganismsmicrobemicrobes
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

NOD-like receptor

Nod-like receptorsNOD-like receptors (NLRs)(NOD)-like receptor
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
These receptors function like plasma membrane toll-like receptors (TLRs), but recognize antigens located within the cell rather than outside of it.

Apoptosis

apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
In contrast to apoptosis, pyroptosis requires the function of the enzyme caspase-1.

Mass spectrometry

mass spectrometerMSmass spectrometric
Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a CARD or Caspase activation and recruitment domain).

PYCARD

ASCapoptosis-associated speck-like proteiASC (PYCARD)
Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a CARD or Caspase activation and recruitment domain).

CARD domain

CARDcaspase recruitment domainCARD motif
Biochemical and mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that this pyroptosome is largely composed of dimers of the adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a CARD or Caspase activation and recruitment domain).

Damage-associated molecular pattern

DAMPsdamage-associated molecular patternsDAMP
Unlike apoptosis, cell death by pyroptosis results in plasma-membrane rupture and the release of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules such as ATP, DNA and ASC oligomers (specks) into the extracellular milieu, including cytokines that recruit more immune cells and further perpetuate the inflammatory cascade in the tissue.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Pyroptosis has a distinct morphology and mechanism compared to other forms of cell death.

Necrosis

necroticnecrotizingnecrotic tissue
However, this form of cell death is akin to necrosis.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
Two types of receptors that belong to different families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are present in the pyroptosis to sense intracellular and extracellular 'danger' signals.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
The 'danger' signals can be given off by invasive pathogens, or by an injury to a tissue, which can all be recognised by the host cells' receptors.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
In this process, immune cells recognize foreign danger signals within themselves, release pro-inflammatory cytokines, swell, burst and die.