Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoras of SamosPythagoreansPitagoraPythagorean SchoolP'''y'''thagorasPictagorasPithagorasPitágorasPythagora
Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism.wikipedia
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Pythagoreanism

PythagoreanPythagoreansPythagorean school
570) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans.

Western philosophy

Western thoughtWesternlate modern philosophy
His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy.
624 – c. 546 BC) and Pythagoras (c.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy.
His own most decisive philosophical influences are usually thought to have been along with Socrates, the pre-Socratics Pythagoras, Heraclitus and Parmenides, although few of his predecessors' works remain extant and much of what we know about these figures today derives from Plato himself.

Reincarnation

reincarnatedrebirthpast lives
The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body.
A belief in rebirth/metempsychosis was held by Greek historic figures, such as Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato.

Samos

Samos IslandSamianSamians
Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend, but he appears to have been the son of Mnesarchus, a gem-engraver on the island of Samos.
Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun.

Pythagorean theorem

Pythagoras' theoremPythagorasPythagoras's theorem
In antiquity, Pythagoras was credited with many mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five regular solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, and the identity of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus.
The theorem, whose history is the subject of much debate, is named for the ancient Greek thinker Pythagoras.

Vegetarianism

vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
This lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included vegetarianism, although modern scholars doubt that he ever advocated for complete vegetarianism.
Greek teacher Pythagoras, who promoted the altruistic doctrine of metempsychosis, may have practiced vegetarianism, but is also recorded as eating meat.

Crotone

CrotonCrotonaKroton
Modern scholars disagree regarding Pythagoras's education and influences, but they do agree that, around 530 BC, he travelled to Croton, where he founded a school in which initiates were sworn to secrecy and lived a communal, ascetic lifestyle.
Pythagoras founded his school, the Pythagoreans, at Croton c. 530 BC.

Numerology

numerologicalnumerologistunlucky number
Scholars debate whether Pythagoras developed the numerological and musical teachings attributed to him, or if those teachings were developed by his later followers, particularly Philolaus of Croton.
Pythagoras and other philosophers of the time believed that because mathematical concepts were more "practical" (easier to regulate and classify) than physical ones, they had greater actuality.

Metempsychosis

transmigration of soulsmigration of the soulReincarnation
The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body.
The earliest Greek thinker with whom metempsychosis is connected is Pherecydes of Syros, but Pythagoras, who is said to have been his pupil, is its first famous philosophic exponent.

Pythagorean tuning

PythagoreanPythagorean scalenumerological theory of music
In antiquity, Pythagoras was credited with many mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five regular solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, and the identity of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus.
The system had been mainly attributed to Pythagoras (sixth century BC) by modern authors of music theory, while Ptolemy, and later Boethius, ascribed the division of the tetrachord by only two intervals, called "semitonium", "tonus", "tonus" in Latin (256:243 × 9:8 × 9:8), to Eratosthenes.

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosophyGreek philosophersGreek philosopher
570) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism.
Pythagoras lived at roughly the same time that Xenophanes did and, in contrast to the latter, the school that he founded sought to reconcile religious belief and reason.

Musica universalis

music of the spheresharmony of the spheresthe music of the spheres
He may have also devised the doctrine of musica universalis, which holds that the planets move according to mathematical equations and thus resonate to produce an inaudible symphony of music.
The discovery of the precise relation between the pitch of the musical note and the length of the string that produces it is attributed to Pythagoras.

Timaeus (dialogue)

TimaeusTimæuscreated
Pythagoras influenced Plato, whose dialogues, especially his Timaeus, exhibit Pythagorean teachings.
It has been suggested from some traditions (Diogenes Laertius (VIII 85) from Hermippus (3rd century B.C.) and Timon (320 – 230 B.C.)) that Timaeus was influenced by a book about Pythagoras, written by Philolaus, although this assertion is generally considered false.

Alcmaeon of Croton

AlcmaeonAlcamaeonAlkmaeon
Alcmaeon of Croton, a doctor who lived in Croton at around the same time Pythagoras lived there, incorporates many Pythagorean teachings into his writings and alludes to having possibly known Pythagoras personally.
Alcmaeon is said by some to have been a pupil of Pythagoras, and he is believed to have been born c. 510 BC.

Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers

Lives of Eminent PhilosophersLives of the Eminent PhilosophersLives
The earliest and most respectable of these is the one from Diogenes Laërtius's Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers.
The biographies of the former begin with Anaximander, and end with Clitomachus, Theophrastus and Chrysippus; the latter begins with Pythagoras, and ends with Epicurus.

Walter Burkert

Burkert, WalterBurkertBurkert, W.
Most of the major sources on Pythagoras's life are from the Roman period, by which point, according to the German classicist Walter Burkert, "the history of Pythagoreanism was already... the laborious reconstruction of something lost and gone."
He published books on the balance between lore and science among the followers of Pythagoras, and more extensively on ritual and archaic cult survival, on the ritual killing at the heart of religion, on mystery religions, and on the reception in the Hellenic world of Near Eastern and Persian culture, which sets Greek religion in its wider Aegean and Near Eastern context.

Heraclitus

Heraclitus of EphesusHeracliteanpanta rhei
The poet Heraclitus of Ephesus, who was born across a few miles of sea away from Samos and may have lived within Pythagoras's lifetime, mocked Pythagoras as a clever charlatan, remarking that "Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, practiced inquiry more than any other man, and selecting from these writings he manufactured a wisdom for himself—much learning, artful knavery."
Heraclitus is silent on Parmenides, yet Parmenides seems possibly to refer to him, and Heraclitus refers to the likes of Pythagoras.

Anaximander

Anaximander of MiletusAnaximandrosἈναξίμανδρος
He was a contemporary of the philosophers Anaximander, Anaximenes, and the historian Hecataeus, all of whom lived in Miletus, across the sea from Samos.
He succeeded Thales and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and, arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils.

Clement of Alexandria

ClementClemens AlexandrinusSt. Clement of Alexandria
According to the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria (c.
In one of his works he argued that Greek philosophy had its origin among non-Greeks, claiming that both Plato and Pythagoras were taught by Egyptian scholars.

Xenophanes

Xenophanes of ColophonXenophane
The earliest source on Pythagoras's teachings is a satirical poem probably written after his death by Xenophanes of Colophon, who had been one of his contemporaries.
His surviving work refers to Thales, Epimenides, and Pythagoras, and he himself is mentioned in the writings of Heraclitus and Epicharmus.

Spherical Earth

spherical shape of the Earthspheresphericity of the Earth
In antiquity, Pythagoras was credited with many mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five regular solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, and the identity of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus.
Pythagoras (6th century BC) was among those said to have originated the idea, but this might reflect the ancient Greek practice of ascribing every discovery to one or another of their ancient wise men.

Nicolaus Copernicus

CopernicusCopernicanNicholas Copernicus
Pythagoras continued to be regarded as a great philosopher throughout the Middle Ages and his philosophy had a major impact on scientists such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, and Isaac Newton.
Copernicus the humanist sought confirmation for his growing doubts through close reading of Greek and Latin authors (Pythagoras, Aristarchos of Samos, Cleomedes, Cicero, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch, Philolaus, Heraclides, Ecphantos, Plato), gathering, especially while at Padua, fragmentary historic information about ancient astronomical, cosmological and calendar systems.

Metapontum

MetapontiumMetapontion(of Metapontum)
Pythagoras may have been killed during this persecution, or escaped to Metapontum, where he eventually died.
It does not appear that Metapontum took any part in the war between Crotona and Sybaris, which ended in the destruction of the latter city; but its name is frequently mentioned in connection with the changes introduced by Pythagoras, and the troubles consequent upon them.

Ovid

Publius Ovidius NasoOvidianOvidius
Pythagorean symbolism was used throughout early modern European esotericism and his teachings as portrayed in Ovid's Metamorphoses influenced the modern vegetarian movement.
The final book opens with a philosophical lecture by Pythagoras and the deification of Caesar.