Pythagoreanism

In Raphael's fresco The School of Athens, Pythagoras is shown writing in a book as a young man presents him with a tablet showing a diagrammatic representation of a lyre above a drawing of the sacred tetractys.
The Plimpton 322 tablet records Pythagorean triples from Babylonian times.
Animation demonstrating the simplest Pythagorean triple, 32 + 42 = 52.
Bust of Pythagoras, Musei Capitolini, Rome.
Pythagoreans celebrate sunrise, 1869 painting by Fyodor Bronnikov.
The Archytas curve
The first six triangular numbers
Medieval woodcut by Franchino Gaffurio, depicting Pythagoras and Philolaus conducting musical investigations.
According to a collection of ancient philosophical texts by Stobaeus in the 5th century AD, Philolaus believed there was a "Counter-Earth" (Antichthon) orbiting a "central fire" but not visible from Earth.
Pythagoras and faba beans, French, 1512/1514. Pythagoreans refused to eat beans. Already in antique times there was much speculation about the reason for this custom.
Illustration from 1913 showing Pythagoras teaching a class of women.
Heavily annotated copy of De Sphaera of Sacrobosco.
Pythagoras is credited with having devised the tetractys, an important sacred symbol in later Pythagoreanism.
A page of Fibonacci's Liber Abaci from the Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze showing (in box on right) the Fibonacci sequence with the position in the sequence labeled in Roman numerals and the value in Eastern Arabic numerals.
Pythagoras appears in a relief sculpture on one of the archivolts over the right door of the west portal at Chartres Cathedral.
Medieval manuscript of Calcidius's Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus, a Platonic dialogue with overt Pythagorean influences.
1619 first edition of Harmonices Mundi, full title Ioannis Keppleri Harmonices mundi libri V (The Harmony of the World), by Johannes Kepler.

Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on and around the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans.

- Pythagoreanism
In Raphael's fresco The School of Athens, Pythagoras is shown writing in a book as a young man presents him with a tablet showing a diagrammatic representation of a lyre above a drawing of the sacred tetractys.

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Crotone

City and comune in Calabria.

City and comune in Calabria.

The Castle of Charles V.
Coin of Croton, c. 480-460 BC.
The National Archaeological Museum.

Pythagoras founded his school, the Pythagoreans, at Croton c. 530 BC.

Magna Graecia

The name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day Italian regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily; these regions were extensively populated by Greek settlers.

The name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day Italian regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily; these regions were extensively populated by Greek settlers.

Greek temples of Paestum, Campania
Mosaic from Caulonia, Calabria
Temple of Hera in Metaponto, Basilicata
The Temple of Concordia, Akragas, Sicily
Milo of Croton
Archimedes of Syracuse
Archytas of Tarentum
5th century BC Greek coins of Tarentum
The goddess Nike riding on a two-horse chariot, Apulian patera (tray), 4th century BC.
Head-Kantharos of a Female Faun or Io, red-figure pottery, South Italy, 375-350 BC

The term Magna Graecia first appears in Polybius' Histories, where he ascribed the term to Pythagoras and his philosophical school.

Bust of Pythagoras of Samos in the
Capitoline Museums, Rome

Pythagoras

Bust of Pythagoras of Samos in the
Capitoline Museums, Rome
Pythagoras
Bust of Pythagoras in the Vatican Museums, Vatican City, showing him as a "tired-looking older man"
Bronze bust of a philosopher wearing a tainia from Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum, possibly a fictional bust of Pythagoras
Illustration from 1913 showing Pythagoras teaching a class of women. Many prominent members of his school were women and some modern scholars think that he may have believed that women should be taught philosophy as well as men.
In Raphael's fresco The School of Athens, Pythagoras is shown writing in a book as a young man presents him with a tablet showing a diagrammatic representation of a lyre above a drawing of the sacred tetractys.
Pythagoras is credited with having devised the tetractys, an important sacred symbol in later Pythagoreanism.
Pythagoreans Celebrate the Sunrise (1869) by Fyodor Bronnikov
French manuscript from 1512/1514, showing Pythagoras turning his face away from fava beans in revulsion
Pythagoras Emerging from the Underworld (1662) by Salvator Rosa
The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c).
Late medieval woodcut from Franchino Gafurio's Theoria musice (1492), showing Pythagoras with bells and other instruments in Pythagorean tuning
Medieval manuscript of Calcidius's Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus, which is one of the Platonic dialogues with the most overt Pythagorean influences
Hadrian's Pantheon in Rome, depicted in this eighteenth-century painting by Giovanni Paolo Panini, was built according to Pythagorean teachings.
Pythagoras appears in a relief sculpture on one of the archivolts over the right door of the west portal at Chartres Cathedral.
Pythagoras Advocating Vegetarianism (1618–1630) by Peter Paul Rubens was inspired by Pythagoras's speech in Ovid's Metamorphoses. The painting portrays the Pythagoreans with corpulent bodies, indicating a belief that vegetarianism was healthful and nutritious.
Dante Alighieri's description of Heaven in his Paradiso incorporates Pythagorean numerology.

Pythagoras of Samos (, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek; c. 570) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism.

Ionia, source of early Greek philosophy, in western Asia Minor

Western philosophy

Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

Ionia, source of early Greek philosophy, in western Asia Minor
Bust of Socrates, Roman copy after a Greek original from the 4th century BCE
Aristotle in The School of Athens, by Raphael
Map of Alexander the Great's empire and the route he and Pyrrho of Elis took to India
Roman Epicurus bust
Saint Augustine.
St. Anselm of Canterbury is credited as the founder of scholasticism.
St. Thomas Aquinas, painting by Carlo Crivelli, 1476
Erasmus is Credited as the Prince of the Humanists
Bronze statue of Giordano Bruno by Ettore Ferrari, Campo de' Fiori, Rome
Portrait of René Descartes, after Frans Hals, second half of 17th century
Portrait of John Locke, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1697
Portrait of David Hume, by Allan Ramsay, 1754
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, steel engraving, after 1828
Friedrich Nietzsche, photograph by Friedrich Hartmann, c. 1875
Martin Heidegger
Bertrand Russell
Gottlob Frege, c. 1905
Patricia Churchland, 2005
Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, c. undefined 1921
Søren Kierkegaard, sketch by Niels Christian Kierkegaard, c. 1840
Portrait of Immanuel Kant, c. 1790
Edmund Husserl, in the 1910s
Ferdinand de Saussure
William James in 1906
Pyrrho of Elis, marble head, Roman copy, Archaeological Museum of Corfu

Pythagoreans hold that "all is number", giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians.

Apollonius of Tyana ( c. 15?–c. 100? AD), one of the most important representatives of Neopythagoreanism

Neopythagoreanism

Apollonius of Tyana ( c. 15?–c. 100? AD), one of the most important representatives of Neopythagoreanism

Neopythagoreanism (or neo-Pythagoreanism) was a school of Hellenistic philosophy which revived Pythagorean doctrines.

Empedocles, 17th-century engraving

Empedocles

Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.

Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a native citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.

Empedocles, 17th-century engraving
The temple of Hera at Akragas, built when Empedocles was a young man, c. 470 BC.
A piece of the Strasbourg Empedocles papyrus in the Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, Strasbourg
Empedocles as portrayed in the Nuremberg Chronicle
Empedocles' cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife.
The Death of Empedocles by Salvator Rosa (1615 – 1673), depicting the legendary alleged suicide of Empedocles jumping into Mount Etna in Sicily

Influenced by Pythagoras (died c. 495 BC) and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles challenged the practice of animal sacrifice and killing animals for food.

Orphic mosaics were found in many late-Roman villas

Orphism (religion)

Name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as from the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned.

Name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the ancient Greek and Hellenistic world, as well as from the Thracians, associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus, who descended into the Greek underworld and returned.

Orphic mosaics were found in many late-Roman villas
Gold orphic tablet and case found in Petelia, southern Italy (British Museum)

Orphic views and practices have parallels to elements of Pythagoreanism, and various traditions hold that the Pythagoreans or Pythagoras himself authored early Orphic works; alternately, later philosophers believed that Pythagoras was an initiate of Orphism.

Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. This statue is a Roman-era copy of an earlier Greek statue from the third century BC. The scroll in his right hand is an 18th-century restoration.

Cynicism (philosophy)

School of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics .

School of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics .

Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. This statue is a Roman-era copy of an earlier Greek statue from the third century BC. The scroll in his right hand is an 18th-century restoration.
The Cynics adopted Heracles, shown here in this gilded bronze statue from the second century CE, as their patron hero.
Bust of Antisthenes
Diogenes Searching for an Honest Man (c. undefined 1780) attributed to J. H. W. Tischbein
Crates and Hipparchia, an antique fresco from Rome
Diogenes Sitting in His Tub (1860) by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Coptic icon of Saint Anthony of the Desert, an early Christian ascetic. Early Christian asceticism may have been influenced by Cynicism.

Various philosophers, such as the Pythagoreans, had advocated simple living in the centuries preceding the Cynics.

Reggio Calabria

Largest city in Calabria.

Largest city in Calabria.

Reggio in a medieval engraving.
Effects of the 1908 earthquake.
Reggio di Calabria in 1920.
View on the Strait of Messina by the beach of Reggio Calabria
Bathing establishments along the beach
Monument to Victor Emmanuel II
Castle
Cathedral
Cilea Theatre
Giudecca Street
Villa Genoese-Zerbi
Arena dello Stretto, hosts musical and theatrical events.
View on Reggio Calabria Airport

Throughout classical antiquity Rhegion remained an important maritime and commercial city as well as a cultural centre, as is demonstrated by the presence of academies of art, philosophy, and science, such as the Pythagorean School, and also by its well-known poet Ibycus, the historian Ippys, the musicologist Glaucus, and the sculptors Pythagoras and Clearchus.

Fictionalized portrait of Xenophanes from a 17th-century engraving

Xenophanes

Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and critic of Homer from Ionia who traveled throughout the Greek-speaking world in early Classical Antiquity.

Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and critic of Homer from Ionia who traveled throughout the Greek-speaking world in early Classical Antiquity.

Fictionalized portrait of Xenophanes from a 17th-century engraving
Xenophanes characterized his travels as "tossing up and down" Ancient Greece in the archaic period. His travels took him from Colophon, Ionia in present day Turkey as far as colonies in Magna Graecia in present day Italy
6th century BC depiction of an Ancient Greek symposium. Xenophanes criticized these drinking parties as they were celebrated in his time for their excesses and failures to honor the gods.
Xenophanes was likely the first philosopher to offer a naturalistic rather than a mythological explanation for St. Elmo's Fire.

Others associate him with Pythagoreanism.