QEMU

The free operating system OpenIndiana running within QEMU, which runs as processes on Linux
The free operating system OpenIndiana running within QEMU, which runs as processes on Linux
QEMU booted into the ARM port of Fedora 8

Free and open-source emulator.

- QEMU

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Kernel-based Virtual Machine

Virtualization module in the Linux kernel that allows the kernel to function as a hypervisor.

Screenshot of QEMU/KVM running NetBSD and OpenIndiana guests on an Arch Linux host.
Screenshot of QEMU/KVM running NetBSD and OpenIndiana guests on an Arch Linux host.
A high-level overview of the KVM/QEMU virtualization environment
libvirt supports KVM

Originally a forked version of QEMU was provided to launch guests and deal with hardware emulation that isn't handled by the kernel.

Fabrice Bellard

Bellard in 2007

Fabrice Bellard (born 1972) is a French computer programmer known for writing FFmpeg, QEMU, and the Tiny C Compiler.

Xen

Type-1 hypervisor, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.

Xen running NetBSD and three Linux distributions
Xen running NetBSD and three Linux distributions

Xen HVM has device emulation based on the QEMU project to provide I/O virtualization to the virtual machines.

MIPS architecture

Family of reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architectures (ISA) developed by MIPS Computer Systems, now MIPS Technologies, based in the United States.

The Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC processor is a type of RISC microprocessor.

More advanced free emulators are available from the GXemul (formerly known as the mips64emul project) and QEMU projects.

Linux kernel

Free and open-source, monolithic, modular, multitasking, Unix-like operating system kernel.

Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting
Linux kernel 3.0.0 booting
Linus Torvalds at the LinuxCon Europe 2014 in Düsseldorf
The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software.
Map of the Linux kernel
Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace.
At XDC2014, Alex Deucher from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode driver. The proprietary Linux graphic driver, libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRM infrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blob used by Catalyst.
The Linux Storage Stack Diagram
TiVo DVR, a consumer device running Linux
An example of Linux kernel panic
An iPod booting iPodLinux
Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel
Boot messages of a Linux kernel 2.6.25.17

OS-level virtualization (with Linux-VServer), paravirtualization and hardware-assisted virtualization (with KVM or Xen, and using QEMU for hardware emulation); On the Xen hypervisor, the Linux kernel provides support to build Linux distributions (such as openSuSE Leap and many others) that work as Dom0, that are virtual machine host servers that provide the management environment for the user's virtual machines (DomU).

VirtualBox

Type-2 hypervisor for x86 virtualization developed by Oracle Corporation.

Running Ubuntu 20.10 with Oracle VM VirtualBox on Windows 10
Running Ubuntu 20.10 with Oracle VM VirtualBox on Windows 10
Logo of VirtualBox OSE, 2007–2010

VirtualBox also contains a dynamic recompiler, based on QEMU to recompile any real mode or protected mode code entirely (e.g. BIOS code, a DOS guest, or any operating system startup).

Microsoft Windows

Group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft.

Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985
Windows 3.0, released in 1990
Previous Windows logo (2012–2021)

Darwine – a port of Wine for macOS and Darwin. Operates by running Wine on QEMU.

X86

Family of complex instruction set computer instruction set architectures initially developed by Intel based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant.

The x86 architectures were based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor chip, initially released in 1978.
Intel Core 2 Duo, an example of an x86-compatible, 64-bit multicore processor
AMD Athlon (early version), a technically different but fully compatible x86 implementation
Am386, released by AMD in 1991
Registers available in the x86-64 instruction set
In supercomputer clusters (as tracked by TOP 500 data and visualized on the diagram above, last updated 2013), the appearance of 64-bit extensions for the x86 architecture enabled 64-bit x86 processors by AMD and Intel (teal hatched and blue hatched, in the diagram, respectively) to replace most RISC processor architectures previously used in such systems (including PA-RISC, SPARC, Alpha, and others), and 32-bit x86 (green on the diagram), even though Intel initially tried unsuccessfully to replace x86 with a new incompatible 64-bit architecture in the Itanium processor. The main non-x86 architecture which is still used, as of 2014, in supercomputing clusters is the Power ISA used by IBM Power microprocessors (blue with diamond tiling in the diagram), with SPARC as a distant second.

Proprietary systems include Hyper-V, Parallels Workstation, VMware ESX, VMware Workstation, VMware Workstation Player and Windows Virtual PC, while free and open-source systems include QEMU, Kernel-based Virtual Machine, VirtualBox, and Xen.

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

Publicly available specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware.

EFI's position in the software stack
Example of UEFI variables
Interaction between the EFI boot manager and EFI drivers
Boot process
Example of an active Secure Boot as detected by rEFInd boot manager
Example of an UEFI shell 2.2 session
InsydeH2O, an UEFI implementation
Examples of custom Secure Boot public keys
MokManager, a part of Shim bootloader

QEMU/KVM can be used with the Open Virtual Machine Firmware (OVMF) provided by TianoCore.

NVM Express

Open, logical-device interface specification for accessing a computer's non-volatile storage media usually attached via PCI Express (PCIe) bus.

The position of NVMe data paths and multiple internal queues within various layers of the Linux kernel's storage stack.
on Linux

NVMe is supported by QEMU since version 1.6 released on August 15, 2013. NVMe devices presented to QEMU guests can be either real or emulated.