Qianling Mausoleum

Qianlingas well as tombs in later dynasties
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.wikipedia
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Emperor Gaozong of Tang

Emperor GaozongGaozongLi Zhi
This includes Emperor Gaozong (r.
After his death, he was interred at the Qianling Mausoleum along with Wu Zetian.

Wu Zetian

Empress WuEmpress Dowager WuEmpress Wu Zetian
649–83), as well as his wife, Wu Zetian, who usurped the Tang throne and became China's only reigning female emperor from 690–705.
Wu Zetian also had a monumental impact upon the statuary of the Longmen Grottoes and the "Wordless Stele" at the Qianling Mausoleum, as well as the construction of some major buildings and bronze castings that no longer survive.

Qian County

FengtianQian Co.Qian(xian)
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.
A Tang Dynasty imperial tomb complex, Qianling Mausoleum is located on Liang Mountain in Qian County, 6 kmaway from the county's urban center and 74 kmfrom Xi'an.

Prince Zhanghuai

Li XianLi XiánLei Yin
Tang dynasty funerary epitaphs in the tombs of her son Li Xián (Crown Prince Zhanghuai, 653–84), grandson Li Chongrun (Prince of Shao, posthumously honored Crown Prince Yide, 682–701), and granddaughter Li Xianhui (Lady Yongtai, posthumously honored as Princess Yongtai, 684–701) in the mausoleum are inscribed with the date of burial as 706 AD, allowing historians to accurately date the structures and artwork of the tombs.
In 706, his younger brother Emperor Zhongzong provided Li Xian with an honorable burial by interring his remains at the Qianling Mausoleum.

Prince Yide

Li ChongrunLi Chongzhaoelder brother
Tang dynasty funerary epitaphs in the tombs of her son Li Xián (Crown Prince Zhanghuai, 653–84), grandson Li Chongrun (Prince of Shao, posthumously honored Crown Prince Yide, 682–701), and granddaughter Li Xianhui (Lady Yongtai, posthumously honored as Princess Yongtai, 684–701) in the mausoleum are inscribed with the date of burial as 706 AD, allowing historians to accurately date the structures and artwork of the tombs.
He was posthumously honored as crown prince after his father Emperor Zhongzong was restored to the throne in 705 and in 706, Emperor Zhongzong provided Li Chongrun with an honorable burial by interring his remains at the Qianling Mausoleum.

Princess Yongtai

Li Xianhui
Tang dynasty funerary epitaphs in the tombs of her son Li Xián (Crown Prince Zhanghuai, 653–84), grandson Li Chongrun (Prince of Shao, posthumously honored Crown Prince Yide, 682–701), and granddaughter Li Xianhui (Lady Yongtai, posthumously honored as Princess Yongtai, 684–701) in the mausoleum are inscribed with the date of burial as 706 AD, allowing historians to accurately date the structures and artwork of the tombs.
After Wu Zetian's death, when her father again came to the throne, she and her brother were reburied in grand tombs in the Qianling Mausoleum in 705.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.

Emperor Zhongzong of Tang

Emperor ZhongzongLi XianLi Zhe
Both the Old Book of Tang and New Book of Tang record that, in 706, Wu Zetian's son Emperor Zhongzong (r.
Her "emperor" title was subsequently removed and empress title restored, and Emperor Zhongzong buried her at Qianling, with his father Emperor Gaozong.

Arabian ostrich

S. c. syriacusArabiaostrich
The khan of the Western Turks presented an ostrich to the Tang court in 620 and the Tushara Kingdom sent another in 650; in carved reliefs of Qianling dated c. 683, traditional Chinese phoenixes are modelled on the body of ostriches.
In Tang China, an ostrich was a welcome exotic gift fit for an emperor: ostriches figure in the decoration of the Qianling Mausoleum, completed and closed in 706.

Spirit way

spirit roadSacred Wayassociated statuary
Leading into the mausoleum is a spirit way, which is flanked on both sides with stone statues like the later tombs of the Song dynasty and Ming Dynasty Tombs.

Tang dynasty tomb figures

Tang dynasty tomb figurepottery tomb figurestomb figures
It had been robbed in the past, probably soon after the burial, and items in precious materials taken, but the thieves had not bothered with the over 800 pottery tomb figures, and the extensive frescos were untouched.
The important tomb of the Tang Princess Li Xianhui (or Yongtai) from 705 was discovered in 1960 in the imperial Qianling Mausoleum complex, and professionally excavated from 1964, the first of a number of excavations of major tombs, though others have been left deliberately undisturbed.

Ming tombs

Ming Dynasty TombsMing Tomb ReservoirShisanling
Leading into the mausoleum is a spirit way, which is flanked on both sides with stone statues like the later tombs of the Song dynasty and Ming Dynasty Tombs.
In particular, no proposal to open an imperial tomb has been approved since Dingling, even when the entrance has been accidentally revealed, as was the case of the Qianling Mausoleum.

Funerary art

funerary monumenttomb monumentfunerary
Although primarily funerary art, Fong asserts that these Tang tomb murals are "sorely needed references" to the sparse amount of description offered in Tang era documents about painting, such as the Tang Chao minghua lu ('Celebrated Painters of the Tang Dynasty') by Zhu Jingxuan in the 840s and the Lidai Minghua ji ('A Record of the Famous Painters of the Successive Dynasties') by Zhang Yanyuan in 847.
A looted tomb with fine paintings is the Empress Dowager Wenming tomb of the 5th century CE, and the many tombs of the 7th-century Tang dynasty Qianling Mausoleum group are an early example of a generally well-preserved ensemble.

Que (tower)

queque towersGate Towers
The underground hall of the descending ramp approaching Li Chongrun's tomb chambers, as well as the gated entrance to the front chamber, feature murals of multiple-bodied que gate towers similar to those whose foundations were surveyed at Chang'an.
The Qianling Mausoleum, the best preserved example, features three sets of que towers arranged sequentially along the spirit way.

Chinese pyramids

hill-like tombsChina's Lost PyramidsHan Royal Tomb group
Most are natural hills shaped by man, and they are among the biggest Chinese mausoleums, such as Qianling, joint tomb of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and of the Empress Wu Zetian.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi ProvinceShensiShǎnxī
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.

Xi'an

XianXi’anXi'an, China
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.

Chang'an

ChanganChang-AnChang’an
The Qianling Mausoleum is a Tang dynasty (618–907) tomb site located in Qian County, Shaanxi province, China, and is 85 km northwest from Xi'an, formerly the Tang capital.

Li (surname)

LiLee
Built in 684 (with additional construction until 706), the tombs of the mausoleum complex house the remains of various members of the House of Li, the imperial family of the Tang dynasty.

Tumulus

tumuliburial moundbarrow
Besides the main tumulus mound and underground tomb of Emperor Gaozong and Wu Zetian, there are 17 smaller attendant tombs or peizang mu.

Chancellor of the Tang dynasty

chancellorchancellorsTang dynasty chancellor
Presently, only five of these attendant tombs have been excavated by archaeologists, three belonging to members of the imperial family, one to a chancellor, and the other to a general of the left guard.

Sui dynasty

SuiSui ChinaSui Empire
In fact, this Sui and Tang dynasty practice of interring an epitaph that records the person's name, rank, and dates of death and burial was consistent amongst tombs for the imperial family and high court officials.

Scholar-official

literatischolar-bureaucratsscholar-bureaucrat
In fact, this Sui and Tang dynasty practice of interring an epitaph that records the person's name, rank, and dates of death and burial was consistent amongst tombs for the imperial family and high court officials.