Qu Qiubai

Leader of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1920s.

- Qu Qiubai

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Communist casualties

Guangzhou Uprising

Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Failed communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.

Communist casualties

CCP party head Qu Qiubai consequently decided that the communists had to persuade soldiers who were stationed in Guangdong to join their cause.

An issue of "Dazhung Bao" (大眾报, Dazhong Bao), a newspaper published in Latinxua in 1932

Latinxua Sin Wenz

Historical set of romanizations for Chinese languages, although references to Sin Wenz usually refer to Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz, which was designed for Mandarin Chinese.

Historical set of romanizations for Chinese languages, although references to Sin Wenz usually refer to Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz, which was designed for Mandarin Chinese.

An issue of "Dazhung Bao" (大眾报, Dazhong Bao), a newspaper published in Latinxua in 1932

The eminent Moscow-based Chinese scholar Qu Qiubai (1899–1935) and the Russian linguist V. S. Kolokolov (1896–1979) devised a prototype romanization system in 1929.

Zhongguo Guanhua, or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by Étienne Fourmont (with Arcadio Huang) in 1742

Standard Chinese

Dialect of Mandarin Chinese that emerged as the lingua franca among speakers of Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese in the 20th century.

Dialect of Mandarin Chinese that emerged as the lingua franca among speakers of Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese in the 20th century.

Zhongguo Guanhua, or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by Étienne Fourmont (with Arcadio Huang) in 1742
Distribution of Mandarin subgroups in mainland China, as of 1987
Distribution of Chinese dialect groups, including Mandarin (light brown), as of 1987
A poster outside a high school in Yangzhou urges people to "Speak Putonghua to welcome guests from all around, use the language of the civilized (Putonghua) to give your sincere feelings".
Relative pitch contours of the four full tones

Such concerns were first raised by Qu Qiubai in 1931, an early Chinese communist revolutionary leader.

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.

Long March

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the National Army of the Chinese Nationalist Party (CNP/KMT).

Overview map of the route of the Long March
Light red areas show Communist enclaves. Areas marked by a blue "X" were overrun by Kuomintang forces during the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, forcing the Fourth Red Army (north) and the Second Red Army (south) to retreat to more western enclaves (dotted lines). The dashed line is the route of the First Red Army from Jiangxi. The withdrawal of all three Red Armies ends in the northeast enclave of Shaanxi.
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek encircled the Communists in Jiangxi in 1934.
Map drawn by the Red Army Command before the Battle of Xiangjiang
The Luding Bridge
Tiger Leaping Gorge in the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif of western Yunnan province
A Communist leader addressing Long March survivors

It is not known what criteria were used to determine who would stay and who would go, but 16,000 troops and some of the Communists' most notable commanders at the time (including Xiang Ying, Chen Yi, Tan Zhenlin, and Qu Qiubai) were left to form a rear guard, to divert the main force of Nationalist troops from noticing, and preventing, the general withdrawal.

"L'Internationale", original French version

The Internationale

Left-wing anthem.

Left-wing anthem.

"L'Internationale", original French version

Qu Qiubai revised the translation of the lyrics into Chinese after having attended the Fourth Conference of Comintern in November 1921 and having not been able to join in the spontaneous singing by attendees there of L'Internationale in their various home languages with their own Chinese rendition because the Chinese attendees didn't have a good one.

Changzhou

Prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province, China.

Prefecture-level city in southern Jiangsu province, China.

Misty Blue Sitting Statue of Guanyin, Jingde Kiln. Southern Song Dynasty. Collected in Changzhou Museum.
Maps of "Tchang-chou-hien" and "Kia-ting-hien" from Du Halde's 1735 Description of China, based on accounts by Jesuit missionaries.
Map including Changzhou (labeled as (walled) WU-CHIN (CHANGCHOW) 武進) (AMS, 1952)
Comb Lane

Qu Qiubai (1899–1935), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and prominent Marxist thinker and writer. Named "Changzhou San Jie" together with Yun Daiying and Zhang Tailei.