Zhongguo Guanhua, or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by Étienne Fourmont (with Arcadio Huang) in 1742
Distribution of Mandarin subgroups in mainland China, as of 1987
Distribution of Chinese dialect groups, including Mandarin (light brown), as of 1987
A poster outside a high school in Yangzhou urges people to "Speak Putonghua to welcome guests from all around, use the language of the civilized (Putonghua) to give your sincere feelings".
Relative pitch contours of the four full tones

Such concerns were first raised by Qu Qiubai in 1931, an early Chinese communist revolutionary leader.

- Standard Chinese

Qu and a Russian counterpart, V.S. Kolokolov, were responsible for the early development of the Sin Wenz system of Mandarin romanization.

- Qu Qiubai
Zhongguo Guanhua, or Medii Regni Communis Loquela ("Middle Kingdom's Common Speech"), used on the frontispiece of an early Chinese grammar published by Étienne Fourmont (with Arcadio Huang) in 1742

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