Horses of Saint Mark in Venice
Marcus Aurelius celebrating his Roman triumph in 176 AD over the enemies of the Marcomannic Wars, from his now destroyed triumphal arch in Rome, Capitoline Museums, 176–180 AD
: "And Pharaoh … made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt." (miniature from the Paris Gregory, a 9th-century Greek manuscript, Bibliothèque nationale de France)
Helios in his chariot, early 4th century BC, Athena's temple, Ilion
Lucanian fresco from Paestum depicting a quadriga, 340-330 BC (Paestum Archaeological Museum)
A Lucanian fresco from Paestum depicting a quadriga, 4th century BC
Frieze on the 2nd-century BC Libyco-Punic Mausoleum of Dougga
Jupiter and Minerva riding a quadriga drawn by pegasi on a 4th-century BC gold Etruscan bulla (Museo Gregoriano Etrusco)
Relief of a quadriga of sun-god Surya at Bodh Gaya, India
Apollo as the sun god; cast of the "sarcofago matti" (c. 220 AD) (Museum of Roman Civilization)
Detail from a plaster cast of the late 4th-century so-called Sarcophagus of Stilicho (Museum of Roman Civilization)
11th-century rook from Northern Italy in the form of Charlemagne in a quadriga (Cabinet des Médailles)
The triumph of Neptune and Venus in a quadriga drawn by hippocampi in a mosaic from Utica in Africa (Bardo National Museum)
Venus riding in a quadriga drawn by elephants,1st-century AD fresco from Pompeii
Medallion of the co-augusti Diocletian and Maximian ({{Reign|285|305}}) riding in a quadriga drawn by elephants and crowned by Victory
Cybele and Adonis riding on a quadriga drawn by lions on the 4th-century Parabiago plate. (Archaeological Museum of Milan)
Buddy Bear Quadriga in Berlin, Kurfürstendamm 21
Brandenburg Gate Quadriga at night.
The Quadriga dell'Unità at Vittoriano, Rome
Quadriga, Wellington Arch, London
Brabant Raising the National Flag or Quadriga of Brabant, Parc du Cinquantenaire, Brussels
Quadriga, Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, Paris
Quadriga, Grand Theatre, Warsaw
A quadriga sculpted by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg at Bolshoi Theater
by Daniel Chester French, World's Columbian Exposition, 1893
Daniel Chester French and Edward Clark Potter, Minnesota State Capitol 1905
The Seiugae of the Arch of Peace in Milan
Quadriga in the Parc de la Ciutadella in Barcelona
Wayne County Building, Detroit, Michigan, by J. Massey Rhind
Cuadriga Romana Monument, Cali

Car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast and favoured for chariot racing in Classical Antiquity and the Roman Empire until the Late Middle Ages.

- Quadriga

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Type of cart driven by a charioteer, usually using horses to provide rapid motive power.

Reconstructed Roman chariot drawn by horses.
Approximate historical map of the spread of the spoke-wheeled chariot, 2000–500 BCE
Han dynasty bronze models of cavalry and chariots
The area of the spoke-wheeled chariot finds within the Sintashta-Petrovka Proto-Indo-Iranian culture is indicated in purple.
Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief)
Krishna Arjun Rath Monument at Brahma Sarovar. Bronze statue, by Ram V. and Anal R. Sutar, 2008.
Chariot detail at Airavatesvara Temple built by Rajaraja Chola II of the Chola Empire in the 12th century CE.
Stone chariot at Hampi, built under the Vijayanagara Empire, early 16th century CE.
A golden chariot made during Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BCE).
Relief of early war wagons on the Standard of Ur, c. 2500 BCE
Ramses II fighting from a chariot at the Battle of Kadesh with two archers, one with the reins tied around the waist to free both hands (relief from Abu Simbel)
The Charioteer of Delphi was dedicated to the god Apollo in 474 BCE by the tyrant of Gela in commemoration of a Pythian racing victory at Delphi.
Chariot, armed warrior and his driver Greece 4th century BCE
Two female charioteers from Tiryns 1200 BCE
A petroglyph in a double burial, c. 1000 BCE (the Nordic Bronze Age)
Detail of the Monteleone Chariot at the Met (c. 530 BCE)
A winner of a Roman chariot race
Fresco depicting an Italic chariot from the Lucanian tomb, 4th century BCE.
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4th century BCE.
The goddess Nike riding on a two-horse chariot, from an Apulian patera (tray), Magna Graecia, 4th century BCE.
Procession of chariots on a Late Geometric amphora from Athens (c. 720–700 BCE).
Sculpture by Thomas Thornycroft of Boudica and her daughters in her chariot, addressing her troops before the battle.
Procession of chariots and warriors on the Vix krater (c. 510), a vessel of Archaic Greek workmanship found in a Gallic burial.
Modern reconstruction of a Hussite war wagon.
Chariot burial of Zheng
Bronze Chinese charioteer from the Warring States period (403–221 BCE).
Powerful landlord in chariot (Eastern Han, 25–220 CE, Anping County, Hebei).

In ancient Rome and some other ancient Mediterranean civilizations, a biga required two horses, a triga three, and a quadriga four.

Victoria (mythology)

The personified goddess of victory.

Victoria (Nike) on an antique fresco from Pompeii
Arch of Trajan (Benevento), with a pair of winged victories in the spandrels
Victoria on top of the Berlin Victory Column. Cast by Gladenbeck, Berlin)<ref name=ISSUU>{{cite web|title=Oscar Gladenbeck (1850–1921)|url=http://issuu.com/tobogan.antiques/docs/furniture/262|website=ISSUU.com|access-date=18 June 2015}}</ref>
Gold coin of Constantine II depicting Victoria on the reverse
Intaglio in lapis lazuli representing Victoria, 100 - 200 A.D., found in Tongeren Gallo-Roman museum, Tongres
Roman goddess Victoria in Arretine Ware fragment
thumb|Victoria as depicted on the 2019 Utah Goldback Twenty Five

She is often seen with or in a chariot, as in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany; "Il Vittoriano" in Rome has two.


God and personification of the Sun (Solar deity).

Helios on an antique fresco from Pompeii
Helios (far right) in a Phaethon sarcophagus, detail, marble, third century AD, Verona, Italy.
Helios relief (1830), Stuttgart, Rosenstein Castle.
Helios in his chariot, early 4th century BC, Athena's temple, Ilion
Bust of the sun-god Helios, second century AD; the holes were used for the attachment of a sun ray crown, Ancient Agora Museum, Athens, Greece.
Helios and Selene, by Johann Rathausky, fountain group statue in Opatija, Croatia.
Helios the rising Sun, painting on a terracotta disk, 480 BC, Agora Museum Athens
Hera makes Helios set earlier, Iliad engraving, John Flaxman.
Helios's cup with Heracles in it, Rome, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, n. 205336.
Helios rising in his chariot, red-figured calyx-krater, 430 BC (circa), British Museum.
Silver tetradrachm of Rhodes showing Helios and a rose (205-190 BC, 13.48 g)
Phaethon meets the Sun, engraving for the Metamorphoses.
Helios and Phaethon, by Nicolas Poussin
Phaethon in the chariot of the Sun, Godfried Maes, ca 1664-1700
Head of Helios, middle period, Archaeological Museum of Rhodes
Clytie turns into a sunflower as the Sun refuses to look at her, engraving by Abraham van Diepenbeeck.
Helios on his chariot fighting a Giant, detail of the Gigantomachy frieze, Pergamon Altar, Pergamon museum, Berlin
Phoebus and Boreas, Jean-Baptiste Oudry's cosmic interpretation of La Fontaine's fable, 1729/34
Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun, by Nicolas Poussin, 1658, oil on canvas
Helios and chariot depicted on the dome of the entrance hall of the Széchenyi Bath, Budapest
The companions of Odysseus rob the cattle of Helios, fresco by Palazzo Poggi, 1556.
Bust of Helios in a clipeus, detail from a strigillated lenos sarcophagus, white marble, early 3rd century CE, Tomb D in Via Belluzzo, Rome.
Limestone relief representing the god Helios, driving the celestial quadriga, Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels, Belgium.
Helios, riding on a snake-drawn chariot, witnesses Medea killing her son on an altar, red-figure krater, detail, attributed to the Underworld Painter, circa 330 - 310 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlung, Munich.
Helios rising in his quadriga; above Nyx driving away to the left and Eos to the right, and Heracles offering sacrifice at altar. Sappho painter, Greek, Attic, black-figure, ca. 500 BC
Helios the Sun, by Hendrik Goltzius (Holland, Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], 1558-1617
Alexander the Great as Helios, Roman, cast bronze, 1st century, Walters Art Museum.
Colossus of Rhodes
Quadriga of the Sun, sixth century BC, Temple C, Selinunte.
Magical sphere with Helios and magical symbols from the theatre of Dionysus, Acropolis Museum, Athens.
Statue of Caracalla-Helios with Alexander features, marble, Roman, ca. 2nd-3rd century AD, North Carolina Museum of Art.
Coin of Roman Emperor Constantine I depicting Sol Invictus/Apollo with the legend SOLI INVICTO COMITI, c. 315 AD.
Horse-drawn quadriga of Sol on the Parabiago plate (ca. 2nd–5th centuries AD)
Solar Apollo with the radiant halo of Helios in a Roman floor mosaic, El Djem, Tunisia, late 2nd century
Bust of Alexander the Great as an eidolon of Helios (Musei Capitolini).
Helios as the personification of midday, renaissance painting by Anton Raphael Mengs (c. 1765) showing apollonian traits, such as the lack of a chariot, that were absent in mythology and Hellenic art.
Helios on a golden coin from 117 AD.
Phoebus Driving his Chariot by Karl Bryullov, oil on canvas, 19th century.
Helios in the Sun chariot accompanied by Phosphorus and Hermes, fresco at Nymphenburg Palace, Munich.
Serapis with Moon and Sun, oil lamp, Roman terracotta, British Museum.
Dionysus with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios, Aphrodite and other gods. Antique fresco from Pompeii.
Helios (far left, head missing) marble from the east pediment of the Parthenon, British Museum
Helios witnessing the birth of Athena, detail from the pediment (far-left) of the Academy of Athens, by Leonidas Drosis, Greece.
Sol in the east side of the Arch of Constantine, Rome.
Helios surrounded by the zodiac in a mosaic pavement of a 6th century synagogue at Beth Alpha, Israel.
Helios in the Hammat Tiberias mosaic, Israel.
Apollo fountain in the Palace of Versailles, France.
Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan, by Diego de Velázquez, oil on canvas.
Aurora, by Guido Reni, 1613-14, ceiling fresco (Casino dell'Aurora, Rome).
Helios in one of the many stamps issued in 1947-53, celebrating the unification of the Dodecanese with Greece
Odysseus' men eat the oxen, as a woman informs Helios, mounted on his chariot, engraving by Theodoor van Thulden, 1632–1633, Rijksmuseum, Netherlands.
Vulcan surprises Venus and Mars, by Johann Heiss (1679)
The Fall of Icarus, ancient fresco from Pompeii, ca 40-79 AD
The music of the spheres: the planetary spheres, among others, on an engraving from Renaissance Italy.

In art he is usually depicted as a beardless youth in a chiton holding a whip and driving his quadriga, accompanied by various other celestial gods such as Selene, Eos, or the stars.

Iron Cross

Military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).

Standard, most basic form of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross 1st Class of the Napoleonic Wars, in its original form of 1 June 1813, obverse side
Reverse side of the above cross showing eight metal loops for stitching the award to the left side of the uniform breast.
Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross
Various versions from 1813 to 1870
Herman von Salza, the 4th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (1209–1239)
War flag of Prussia (1816)
1813 Iron Cross
King Frederick William III of Prussia, creator of the award
Field Marshal Blücher wearing the 1813 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (around his neck), and the Star (on his chest)
King Wilhelm I of Prussia wearing the 1813 Iron Cross 2nd class (with ribbon), 1870 Iron Cross 1st class (on his chest) and the larger Grand Cross, awarded in 1871
1914 Iron Cross
World War I Iron Cross, 2nd Class
Certificate of award to a musketeer in the Royal Prussian Landwehr, October 1918
German soldiers who had been awarded the Iron Cross
The Balkenkreuz, introduced in 1916
1939 Iron Cross
World War II Iron Cross 1st class with certificate
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
1914 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross
Star of the Grand Cross (1939)
Emblem of the {{lang|de|Bundeswehr}} (since 1956)
The 1957 version of the 1939 Iron Cross with trifoliate oak leaves replacing the swastika
Badge of Honor of the German Armed Forces
Iron Cross insignia on a UAV Barracuda
Iron Cross insignia on a German Air Force CH-53G in 2015

When the Quadriga of the Goddess of Peace was retrieved from Paris at Napoleon's fall, it was re-established atop Berlin's Brandenburg Gate.

Brandenburg Gate

18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after restoring the Orangist power by suppressing the Dutch popular unrest.

The Brandenburg Gate, viewed from
the Pariser Platz on the East side
The original Brandenburg Gate in a 1764 engraving, 30 years before its neoclassical reconstruction.
The Berlin Customs Wall with its eighteen gates
Quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate at night
The environs of the Brandenburg Gate in 1889, by Christian Wilhelm Allers.
View over Pariser Platz, June 1945
Bernard Montgomery and Soviet marshals Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky leave the Brandenburg Gate on 12 July 1945 after being decorated by Montgomery.
The Brandenburg Gate as seen from Unter den Linden in East Berlin in July 1981.
A crane removes a section of the Berlin Wall near the Brandenburg Gate on 21 December 1989.
Ronald Reagan speaking at the Brandenburg Gate section of the Berlin Wall on 12 June 1987, challenging Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!"
Twentieth anniversary celebrations of the fall of the Berlin Wall at Brandenburg Gate on 9 November 2009, featuring a performance by Paul van Dyk
The Gate on a 2014 morning
The Gate at midnight in 2014
Napoleon passing through the Brandenburg Gate after the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (1806). Painted by Charles Meynier in 1810.
The Gate in 1928
The Gate in the 1930s
Brandenburg gate in 1982.
In 1984, East Berliners and others were kept away from the Gate, which they could view only from this distance.
The Berlin Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate, shortly before its fall in 1989
Gate with Pariser Platz
The Brandenburg Gate as seen from the rooftop terrace of the Reichstag building, with the United States Embassy in the background
The quadriga with skyscrapers of Potsdamer Platz
Dark silhouette impression at sunset, 2010
The Gate lit up with the colors of the French Flag, after the November 2015 Paris attacks
The Gate illuminated with the colors of Belgian flag, after the 2016 Brussels bombings
The quadriga at night
The Gate lit up in the colors of the Ukrainian flag during a solidarity protest against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Atop the gate is a sculpture by Johann Gottfried Schadow of a quadriga - a chariot drawn by four horses - driven by Victoria, the Roman goddess of victory.


Opera house of the Sächsische Staatsoper Dresden and the concert hall of the Staatskapelle Dresden (Saxon State Orchestra).

Interior of the first opera house in 1841
The first opera house, around 1850
Semperoper with the Theatre Square, 2011
Interior of the current opera house, 2013

On top of the portal there is a Panther quadriga with a statue of Dionysos.

Solar deity

Sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it.

A solar representation on an anthropomorphic stele dated from the time period between the Copper Age and the Early Bronze Age, discovered during an archaeological excavation on the Rocher des Doms, Avignon.
Ra, ancient Egyptian god of the sun and king of the gods
Ra in his barque
The Trundholm sun chariot
Goddess Amaterasu
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown.
The halo of Jesus, seen in many paintings, has similarities to a parhelion.
Mosaic of Christ as Sol or Apollo-Helios in Mausoleum M in the pre-4th-century necropolis beneath St. Peter's in the Vatican, which many interpret as representing Christ
Mosaic in the Beth Alpha synagogue, with the Sun represented in the center, surrounded by the twelve zodiac constellations and with the four seasons associated inaccurately with the constellations
The Hindu solar deity Surya being driven across the sky in his chariot
Isis, bearing her solar disk and horns nurses her infant, Horus
The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra
Taiyang Shen, the Chinese solar deity
Statue of the sun goddess Xihe charioteering the sun, being pulled by a dragon, in Hangzhou
Sun and Immortal Birds Gold Ornament by ancient Shu people. The center is a sun pattern with twelve points around which four birds fly in the same counterclockwise direction, Shang dynasty

Sol Invictus depicted riding a quadriga on the reverse of a Roman coin.

Chariot racing

One of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.

Modern depiction (1876) by Jean Léon Gérôme of a chariot race in Rome's Circus Maximus, as if seen from the starting gate. The Palatine Hill and Imperial palace are to the left
Chariot racing on a black-figure hydria from Attica, ca. 510 BC
The Charioteer of Delphi, an anonymous charioteer who probably drove in the Pythian Games for Polyzalus, tyrant of Gela, in Sicily (480-470BC)
A plan of the Circus Maximus. The starting gates are to the left, and a conjectured start-line cuts across the track, to the right of the nearest meta.
Bas-relief of a quadriga race in the Circus Maximus (2nd–3rd century)
Chariot race of Cupids; ancient Roman sarcophagus in the Museo Archeologico (Naples). Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
A charioteer of the White team; part of a mosaic of the third century AD, showing four leading charioteers from the different colors, all in their distinctive gear
A modern recreation of chariot racing, in the amphitheatre of Puy du Fou theme park
Charioteers in the red tunics of their faction from the Charioteer Papyrus (c. 500)
A winner of a Roman chariot race, from the Red team
Mosaic from Lyon illustrating a chariot race with the four factions: Blue, Green, Red and White
The Istanbul Hippodrome is more or less levelled, apart from some structures on the spina. The Walled Obelisk in the foreground and Thutmose's Obelisk is on the right
The Triumphal Quadriga is a set of Roman or Greek bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga. They date from late Classical Antiquity and were long displayed at the Hippodrome of Constantinople. In 1204 AD, Doge Enrico Dandolo sent them to Venice as part of the loot sacked from Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade.

Most races involved four-horse chariots (quadrigae), or less often, two-horse chariots (bigae).

St Mark's Basilica

Cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Patriarchate of Venice; it became the episcopal seat of the Patriarch of Venice in 1807, replacing the earlier cathedral of San Pietro di Castello.

The entry to St Mark's, believed to date to the Participazio church
Antonio Pellanda, reconstruction of the western façade of the Contarini church (1881)
The juncture of the southern and western crossarms, showing the original brickwork and the subsequent embellishment
The lateral aisle of the western crossarm, showing the arcade that strengthens the vault and the walkways above which were created with the removal of the galleries
Western façade
Former southern entry
Entry to the chancel with the Dome of Immanuel above the high altar
Petrus F., mosaic of Christ Pantocrator in the semi-dome of the apse with the Christogram ICXC (1506)
The Dome of the Creation in the narthex (thirteenth century)
Tintoretto workshop (cartoon), mosaic in the central nave depicting the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (sixteenth century)
Detail of the floor, executed in opus sectile and opus tessellatum (in the corners)
alt=photo of lateral nave of Santo Stefano|Santo Stefano
alt=photo ot entry of Madonna dell'Orto|Madonna dell'Orto
alt=photo of facade of Ca' Dario|Ca' Dario
alt=photo of facade of Santa Maria dei Miracoli|Santa Maria dei Miracoli
alt=photo of Foscari Arch|Foscari Arch
alt=photo of facade of the Scuola Grande di San Marco|Scuola Grande di San Marco

They were part of a quadriga adorning the Hippodrome and are the only equestrian team to survive from classical Antiquity.

Grand Palais

Historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

The Grand Palais (centre) and the Petit Palais (right) as seen from the Eiffel Tower
Salon de la locomotion aérienne, 1909, Grand Palais, Paris
Grand Palais during World War I, 1916
The Grand Palais seen from Pont Alexandre III
The interior
Panoramic view of the Grand Palais
ARTPARIS 2011 preparation at Grand Palais

A monumental bronze quadriga by Georges Récipon tops each wing of the main façade.