A report on Quadrupedalism

The zebra is a quadruped.

Form of terrestrial locomotion where a tetrapod animal uses all four limbs (legs) to bear weight, walk, and run.

- Quadrupedalism
The zebra is a quadruped.

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Computer simulation of a human walk cycle. In this model the head keeps the same level at all times, whereas the hip follows a sine curve.

Walking

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One of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals.

One of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals.

Computer simulation of a human walk cycle. In this model the head keeps the same level at all times, whereas the hip follows a sine curve.
Racewalkers at the World Cup Trials in 1987
Nordic walkers
Free heels are a defining characteristic of ski touring
Human Walking Cycle
Hiking with full packs.
Gauchetière Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Two king penguins and one gentoo penguin walking on a beach on South Georgia, British overseas territory
The walk, a four-beat gait
An Asian elephant walking
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For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, and distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.

Mammal

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Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

Mammals are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

The original synapsid skull structure contains one temporal opening behind the orbitals, in a fairly low position on the skull (lower right in this image). This opening might have assisted in containing the jaw muscles of these organisms which could have increased their biting strength.
Restoration of Juramaia sinensis, the oldest known Eutherian (160 M.Y.A.)
Fossil of Thrinaxodon at the National Museum of Natural History
Raccoon lungs being inflated manually
Mammal skin: 1 — hair, 2 — epidermis, 3 — sebaceous gland, 4 — Arrector pili muscle, 5 — dermis, 6 — hair follicle, 7 — sweat gland, 8 (not labeled, the bottom layer) — hypodermis, showing round adipocytes
Bovine kidney
A diagram of ultrasonic signals emitted by a bat, and the echo from a nearby object
Porcupines use their spines for defense.
A leopard's disruptively colored coat provides camouflage for this ambush predator.
Goat kids stay with their mother until they are weaned.
Matschie's tree-kangaroo with young in pouch
Running gait. Photographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1887.
Gibbons are very good brachiators because their elongated limbs enable them to easily swing and grasp on to branches.
Vervet monkeys use at least four distinct alarm calls for different predators.
A bonobo fishing for termites with a stick
Female elephants live in stable groups, along with their offspring.
Red kangaroos "boxing" for dominance
Upper Paleolithic cave painting of a variety of large mammals, Lascaux, c. 17,300 years old
Cattle have been kept for milk for thousands of years.
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Biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans arrived there
Sexual dimorphism in aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of cattle.

The basic body type is quadruped, and most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion; but in some, the extremities are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground, or on two legs.

An example of terrestrial locomotion. A horse – an erect-stanced unguligrade quadruped – with a galloping gait. A 2006 animation of 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge

Terrestrial locomotion

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Terrestrial locomotion has evolved as animals adapted from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

Terrestrial locomotion has evolved as animals adapted from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

An example of terrestrial locomotion. A horse – an erect-stanced unguligrade quadruped – with a galloping gait. A 2006 animation of 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge
Hip joints and hindlimb postures.
The velvet worm (Onychophora)
A jumping kangaroo.
Helix pomatia crawling over razor blades. Terrestrial gastropods crawl on a layer of mucus. This adhesive locomotion allows them to crawl over sharp objects.
The pangolin Manis temminckii in defensive position.
Simulation of leg waves propagating forward.
Simulation of leg waves propagating backward.

With the exception of the birds, terrestrial vertebrate groups with legs are mostly quadrupedal – the mammals, reptiles, and the amphibians usually move on four legs.

Diagram of an insect leg

Leg

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Weight-bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.

Weight-bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.

Diagram of an insect leg
The leg of a woolly mammoth (reconstruction).

Quadruped: 4 legs, such as dogs and horses

Limb (anatomy)

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Jointed bodily appendage that humans and many other animals use for locomotion such as walking, running and swimming, or for prehensile grasping or climbing.

Jointed bodily appendage that humans and many other animals use for locomotion such as walking, running and swimming, or for prehensile grasping or climbing.

Human legs and feet are specialized for two-legged locomotion – most other mammals walk and run on all four limbs.

Children crawling on the ground during a fire drill in Italy.

Crawling (human)

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Method of human locomotion that makes use of all four limbs.

Method of human locomotion that makes use of all four limbs.

Children crawling on the ground during a fire drill in Italy.
A 10-month-old baby crawling by kneeling
US Airman performs a bear crawl
Soldier crawls through mud during training

It is one of the earliest gaits learned by human infants, and has similar features to four-limbed movement in other primates and in non-primate quadrupeds.

A western lowland gorilla knuckle-walking.

Knuckle-walking

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A western lowland gorilla knuckle-walking.

Knuckle-walking is a form of quadrupedal walking in which the forelimbs hold the fingers in a partially flexed posture that allows body weight to press down on the ground through the knuckles.

A pair of BigDog robots

BigDog

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A pair of BigDog robots
Image from the DARPA Strategic Plan (2007)

BigDog is a dynamically stable quadruped military robot that was created in 2005 by Boston Dynamics with Foster-Miller, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Harvard University Concord Field Station.

The Family That Walks on All Fours

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The Family That Walks on All Fours is a BBC Two documentary that explored the science and the story of five individuals in the Ulas family, a Kurdish family in Southeastern Turkey that walk with a previously unreported quadruped gait.

Kenichi Ito (athlete)

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Japanese athlete from Tokyo.

Japanese athlete from Tokyo.

He holds the Guinness World Record for running 100 meters on all four limbs, setting a best time of 15.71 seconds in the Komazawa Olympic Park in Tokyo, 6 November 2015, shaving 0.15 seconds off the previous record of 15.86 seconds by Katsumi Tamakoshi.