Quakers

QuakerSociety of FriendsReligious Society of FriendsQuakerismFriendsReligious Society of Friends (Quakers)Society of Friends (Quakers)FriendThe QuakersFriends Meeting House
Quakers, also called Friends, are a historically Christian group whose formal name is the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.wikipedia
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Holiness movement

HolinessHoliness churchesHoliness Church
They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity.
The Holiness movement involves a set of beliefs and practices which emerged chiefly within 19th-century Methodism, and to a lesser extent other traditions such as Quakerism and Anabaptism.

Nontheist Quakers

Nontheist FriendNontheist FriendsNontheist Quaker
There are also Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of God.
Nontheist Quakers (also known as nontheist Friends or NtFs) are those who engage in Quaker practices and processes, but who do not necessarily believe in a theistic God or Supreme Being, the divine, the soul or the supernatural.

Valiant Sixty

The Quakers, especially the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ.
The Valiant Sixty were a group of early leaders and activists in the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).

Mainline Protestant

mainlinemainline ProtestantismMainline Protestants
They include those with evangelical, holiness, liberal, and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity.
Mainline churches include the so-called "Seven Sisters of American Protestantism"—the United Methodist Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Presbyterian Church (USA), the Episcopal Church, the American Baptist Churches, the United Church of Christ, and the Disciples of Christ—as well as the Quakers, Reformed Church in America, African Methodist Episcopal church and other churches.

Abolitionism

abolitionistabolition of slaveryabolitionists
In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism. Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
The abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, however, when English and American Quakers began to question the morality.

Recorded Minister

ministerQuaker ministera Quaker minister
Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry.
A Recorded Minister was originally a male or female Quaker who was acknowledged to have a gift of spoken ministry.

American Friends Service Committee

Cost of WarAFSCAmerican Friends' Service Committee
In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) is a Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) founded organization working for peace and social justice in the United States and around the world.

Thou

theethedidst
In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism.
When thou is the grammatical subject of a finite verb in the indicative mood, the verb form typically ends in -(e)st (e.g., "thou goest"; "thou do(e)st"), but in some cases just -t (e.g., "thou art"; "thou shalt"), although in some dialects of Old English (mainly in the North), this verb form ended in -s, hence the Quaker habit of using what looks like the third person form of the verb with "thee" as the subject (paralleling the usage of "you").

Cadbury

Cadbury SchweppesCadbury plcCadburys
Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
In 1824, John Cadbury, a Quaker, began selling tea, coffee and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England.

George Fox

Foxfirst Quaker preacher
A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and nonconformists.
George Fox (July 1624 – 13 January 1691) was an English Dissenter, who was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.

Friends Provident

Friends Ivory & SimeFriends Provident and Century LifeFriends Provident Foundation
Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
It was founded as a mutual Friendly Society for Quakers, although it was demutualised in 2001 and became a publicly listed company, no longer linked with the Religious Society of Friends.

C. & J. Clark

ClarksClarks ShoesC&J Clark
Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
Origins of C. & J. Clark can be traced back to 1821 when Cyrus Clark (1801–1866) entered into a partnership with a Quaker cousin in the trade of fellmongering, wool-stapling and tanning in Street, Somerset.

Mary Fisher (missionary)

Mary FisherFischer, Mary
The persecution of Quakers in North America began in July 1656 when English Quaker missionaries Mary Fisher and Ann Austin began preaching in Boston.
Mary Fisher, also Mary Fisher Bayley Crosse, (c.1623 – 1698) was among the first travelling Quaker ministers.

Inward light

inner lightfor example QuakersInward Light of Christ
Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united by their belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access the light within, or "that of God in every one".
Light of God, Light of Christ, Christ within, That of God, Spirit of God within us, Light within, inward light and inner light are related phrases commonly used within the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) as metaphors for Christ's light shining on or in them.

Seekers

SeekerLegatine-Arians
The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England.
Many of them subsequently joined the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).

Margaret Fell

Margaret AskewMargaret Fell FoxMargaret Fell-Fox
One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, and "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe, 'the family and household of God. Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, who was the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety, faith, and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for women; Fox and Fell viewed the Quaker mother as essential to developing "holy conversation" in her children and husband. Quaker women were also responsible for the spirituality of the larger community, coming together in "meetings" that regulated marriage and domestic behaviour.
Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox (1614 – 23 April 1702) was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends.

English Dissenters

DissentersDissentingDissenter
The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England.
Eventually, some of these merged with the Quakers of the time.

Mary Dyer

William DyerMary Barret DyerMary Barrett
In 1660, English Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.
Mary Dyer (born Marie Barrett; c. 1611 – 1 June 1660) was an English and colonial American Puritan turned Quaker who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony.

Ann Austin

Ann Austen
The persecution of Quakers in North America began in July 1656 when English Quaker missionaries Mary Fisher and Ann Austin began preaching in Boston.
- 1665) was one of the first Quaker travelling preachers.

Boston martyrs

William Robinson and Marmaduke Stephensonexecutedfour of them
She was one of the four executed Quakers known as the Boston martyrs.
The Boston martyrs is the name given in Quaker tradition to the three English members of the Society of Friends, Marmaduke Stephenson, William Robinson and Mary Dyer, and to the Friend William Leddra of Barbados, who were condemned to death and executed by public hanging for their religious beliefs under the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1659, 1660 and 1661.

William Penn

PennPenn familyPenns
West Jersey and Pennsylvania were established by affluent Quaker William Penn in 1676 and 1682 respectively, with Pennsylvania as an American commonwealth run under Quaker principles.
Penn was a writer, early Quaker, and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
Quakers, also called Friends, are a historically Christian group whose formal name is the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Quakers sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit to speak.

Gervase Bennet

In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy.
Bennet coined the term "Quakers" to refer to the Religious Society of Friends.

Rowntree's

Rowntree MackintoshRowntreesRowntree
Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
Founded in 1862, the company developed strong associations with Quaker philanthropy.

Lloyds Bank

Lloyds TSBLloydsLloyd's Bank
Some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays, Lloyds, and Friends Provident; manufacturing companies, including shoe retailer C. & J. Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury, Rowntree and Fry; and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform, and social justice projects.
The origins of Lloyds Bank date from 1765, when button maker John Taylor and Quaker iron producer and dealer Sampson Lloyd set up a private banking business in Dale End, Birmingham.