Quartz clock

quartz watchquartzquartz movementquartz watchesquartz crystalquartz timekeepingquartz wristwatchesclocksquartz clocks and watchesquartz crystal clock
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.wikipedia
188 Related Articles

Electronic oscillator

oscillatoroscillatorsaudio oscillator
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.
Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters, clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks, and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games.

Crystal oscillator

crystalquartz oscillatorquartz crystal
This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than mechanical clocks.
This frequency is often used to keep track of time, as in quartz wristwatches, to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers.

Watch

wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
Since the 1980s, when the advent of solid-state digital electronics allowed them to be made compact and inexpensive, quartz timekeepers have become the world's most widely used timekeeping technology, used in most clocks and watches, as well as computers and other appliances that keep time. The world's first prototype analog quartz wristwatches were revealed in 1967: the Beta 1 revealed by the Centre Electronique Horloger (CEH) in Neuchâtel Switzerland, and the prototype of the Astron revealed by Seiko in Japan (Seiko had been working on quartz clocks since 1958).
In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal.

Piezoelectricity

piezoelectricpiezoelectric effectpiezo-electric
However, quartz is also a piezoelectric material: that is, when a quartz crystal is subject to mechanical stress, such as bending, it accumulates electrical charge across some planes.
It also finds everyday uses such as acting as the ignition source for cigarette lighters, push-start propane barbecues, used as the time reference source in quartz watches, and in amplification pickups for some guitars.

Resonator

resonant cavityresonatorscavity resonator
Since quartz can be directly driven (to flex) by an electric signal, no additional transducer is required to use it in a resonator. In modern quartz clocks, the quartz crystal resonator or oscillator is in the shape of a small tuning fork (XY-cut), laser-trimmed or precision lapped to vibrate at 32768 Hz. This frequency is equal to 2 15 cycles per second.
Another example is quartz crystals used in electronic devices such as radio transmitters and quartz watches to produce oscillations of very precise frequency.

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than mechanical clocks.
In 1927 the first quartz clock was built by Warren Marrison and J.W. Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Canada.

Frequency

frequenciesperiodperiodic
This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than mechanical clocks.
It uses digital logic to count the number of cycles during a time interval established by a precision quartz time base.

Pendulum clock

regulator clockClock pendulumregulator
Later, scientists at NIST (then the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) discovered that a crystal oscillator could be more accurate than a pendulum clock.
In 1929 it switched to the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock before phasing in quartz standards in the 1930s.

Solid-state electronics

solid statesolid-statesolid state electronics
Since the 1980s, when the advent of solid-state digital electronics allowed them to be made compact and inexpensive, quartz timekeepers have become the world's most widely used timekeeping technology, used in most clocks and watches, as well as computers and other appliances that keep time.
The replacement of bulky, fragile, energy-wasting vacuum tubes by transistors in the 1960s and 1970s created a revolution not just in technology but in people's habits, making possible the first truly portable consumer electronics such as the transistor radio, cassette tape player, walkie-talkie and quartz watch, as well as the first practical computers and mobile phones.

Quartz

rock crystalquartz crystalcitrine
A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time.
The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral.

Lavet-type stepping motor

During the 1970s, the introduction of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits allowed a 12-month battery life from a single coin cell when driving either a mechanical Lavet-type stepping motor or a liquid-crystal display (in an LCD digital watch).
Both analog and stepped-movement quartz clocks use the Lavet-type stepping motor (see Quartz clock).

Button cell

coin cellLR44CR2032
During the 1970s, the introduction of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits allowed a 12-month battery life from a single coin cell when driving either a mechanical Lavet-type stepping motor or a liquid-crystal display (in an LCD digital watch). The 32768 Hz resonator has become so common due to a compromise between the large physical size of low-frequency crystals for watches and the large current drain of high-frequency crystals, which reduces the life of the watch battery.
L, S, and C type cells are today the most commonly used types in quartz watches, calculators, small PDA devices, computer clocks, and blinky lights.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayliquid crystal displays
During the 1970s, the introduction of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits allowed a 12-month battery life from a single coin cell when driving either a mechanical Lavet-type stepping motor or a liquid-crystal display (in an LCD digital watch).
Hoffmann-La Roche then licensed the invention to the Swiss manufacturer Brown, Boveri & Cie which produced TN displays for wristwatches and other applications during the 1970s for the international markets including the Japanese electronics industry, which soon produced the first digital quartz wristwatches with TN-LCDs and numerous other products.

Tuning fork

tuning forkstuning-forkDiapasons
In modern quartz clocks, the quartz crystal resonator or oscillator is in the shape of a small tuning fork (XY-cut), laser-trimmed or precision lapped to vibrate at 32768 Hz. This frequency is equal to 2 15 cycles per second.
The quartz crystal that serves as the timekeeping element in modern quartz clocks and watches is in the form of a tiny tuning fork.

Astron (wristwatch)

Astron35 SQ AstronElectronic Quartz Wristwatch
The world's first prototype analog quartz wristwatches were revealed in 1967: the Beta 1 revealed by the Centre Electronique Horloger (CEH) in Neuchâtel Switzerland, and the prototype of the Astron revealed by Seiko in Japan (Seiko had been working on quartz clocks since 1958).
The Astron wristwatch, formally known as the Seiko Quartz-Astron 35SQ, was the world's first "quartz clock" wristwatch.

National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

National Physical LaboratoryNPLNational Physical Laboratory (NPL)
In 1923, D. W. Dye at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK and Warren Marrison at Bell Telephone Laboratories produced sequences of precision time signals with quartz oscillators.
Researchers who have worked at NPL include: D. W. Dye who did important work in developing the technology of quartz clocks.

Celestial navigation

astronavigationnavigationcelestial
Thermocompensated quartz movements, even in wrist watches, can be accurate to within ±5 to ±25 seconds per year and can be used as marine chronometers to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.
Today, time is measured with a chronometer, a quartz watch, a shortwave radio time signal broadcast from an atomic clock, or the time displayed on a GPS.

Seiko

Hattori SeikoHattori Seiko Co.lorus
The world's first prototype analog quartz wristwatches were revealed in 1967: the Beta 1 revealed by the Centre Electronique Horloger (CEH) in Neuchâtel Switzerland, and the prototype of the Astron revealed by Seiko in Japan (Seiko had been working on quartz clocks since 1958).
In 1969, Seiko introduced the Astron, the world's first production quartz watch; when it was introduced, it cost the same as a medium-sized car.

Atomic clock

atomic clocksatomiccaesium clock
The National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) based the time standard of the US on quartz clocks between the 1930s and the 1960s, after which it transitioned to atomic clocks.
It was less accurate than existing quartz clocks, but served to demonstrate the concept.

Quartz crisis

Quartz Revolutionadventchallenge
By the 1980s, quartz technology had taken over applications such as kitchen timers, alarm clocks, bank vault time locks, and time fuzes on munitions, from earlier mechanical balance wheel movements, an upheaval known in watchmaking as the quartz crisis.
The quartz crisis (also known as the quartz revolution) is a term used in the watchmaking industry to refer to the economic upheavals caused by the advent of quartz watches in the 1970s and early 1980s, which largely replaced mechanical watches.

Chronometer watch

chronometerchronometerscertified
The COSC average daily rate standard for officially certified COSC quartz chronometers is ±25.55 seconds per year.
The observatory competitions ended with the advent of the quartz watch movement, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, which generally has superior accuracy at far lesser costs.

Balance wheel

foliotcompensation balanceauxiliary temperature compensation
By the 1980s, quartz technology had taken over applications such as kitchen timers, alarm clocks, bank vault time locks, and time fuzes on munitions, from earlier mechanical balance wheel movements, an upheaval known in watchmaking as the quartz crisis.
From its invention in the 14th century until tuning fork and quartz movements became available in the 1960s, virtually every portable timekeeping device used some form of balance wheel.

Radio clock

radio-controlled clocksradio-controlled clockradio-controlled
If a quartz movement is "rated" by measuring its timekeeping characteristics against a radio clock's time broadcast, to determine how much time the watch gains or loses per day, and adjustments are made to the circuitry to "regulate" the timekeeping, then the corrected time will easily be accurate within ±10 seconds per year.
Inexpensive clocks keep track of the time between updates, or in their absence, with a non-disciplined quartz-crystal clock, with the accuracy typical of non-radio-controlled quartz timepieces.

Timer

timerstiming devicesoftware timer
By the 1980s, quartz technology had taken over applications such as kitchen timers, alarm clocks, bank vault time locks, and time fuzes on munitions, from earlier mechanical balance wheel movements, an upheaval known in watchmaking as the quartz crisis.
Electronic timers are essentially quartz clocks with special electronics, and can achieve higher precision than mechanical timers.

Marine chronometer

chronometerchronometersmarine chronometers
Thermocompensated quartz movements, even in wrist watches, can be accurate to within ±5 to ±25 seconds per year and can be used as marine chronometers to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.
Modern marine chronometers can be based on quartz clocks that are corrected periodically by GPS signals or radio time signals (see radio clock).