Quaternary

Quaternary PeriodQuaternary agelast 2.5 million yearsLate Quaternarypre-quaternaryrecentEarly Quaternarymost recent periodQuaternary (Pleistocene/Holocene)Quaternary Epoch
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).wikipedia
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Cenozoic

Cenozoic EraCainozoicAge of Mammals
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In 2009, it was decided to make the Quaternary the youngest period of the Cenozoic Era with its base at 2.588 Mya and including the Gelasian stage, which was formerly considered part of the Neogene Period and Pliocene Epoch.
The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.

Pleistocene

Pleistocene epochLate PleistocenePleistocene era
The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the Pleistocene (2.588 million years ago to 11.7 thousand years ago) and the Holocene (11.7 thousand years ago to today). The Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, and includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene.
The Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era.

Neogene

Neogene PeriodUpper TertiaryLate Tertiary
It follows the Neogene Period and spans from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.

Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epoch
The Quaternary Period is divided into two epochs: the Pleistocene (2.588 million years ago to 11.7 thousand years ago) and the Holocene (11.7 thousand years ago to today). The Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, and includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene.
The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period.

Geologic time scale

geologic timescalegeologic timeperiod
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

Geological period

periodperiodsgeologic period
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.

Giovanni Arduino (geologist)

Giovanni ArduinoArduino
In 1759 Giovanni Arduino proposed that the geological strata of northern Italy could be divided into four successive formations or "orders" (quattro ordini).
He divided the history of the Earth into four periods: Primitive, Secondary, Tertiary and Volcanic, or Quaternary.

Gelasian

Early Pleistocene2 million years agoGelasian Stage
In 2009, it was decided to make the Quaternary the youngest period of the Cenozoic Era with its base at 2.588 Mya and including the Gelasian stage, which was formerly considered part of the Neogene Period and Pliocene Epoch.
The Gelasian is an age in the international geologic timescale or a stage in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series.

Anthropocene

anthropogenicThe AnthropoceneAnthropocene Extinction
The Anthropocene has been proposed as a third epoch as a mark of the anthropogenic impact on the global environment starting with the Industrial Revolution, or about 200 years ago.
Scientists in the Soviet Union appear to have used the term "anthropocene" as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological period.

Tertiary

Tertiary periodTertiary eraTertiary age
The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.
Later a fourth period, the Quaternary, was applied.

International Commission on Stratigraphy

ICSInternational Chronostratigraphic ChartISC
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
One such controversy arose in 2009 when the ICS deliberated and decided that the Pliocene Series of the current but unofficially named Quaternary Period should be shifted into the Neogene System and Neogene Period.

Paleoclimatology

paleoclimatepaleoclimatologistpalaeoclimatology
The Quaternary subdivisions were defined based on biostratigraphy instead of paleoclimate.
Climatic geomorphology is of limited use to study recent (Quaternary, Holocene) large climate changes since there are seldom discernible in the geomorphological record.

Glacier

glaciersglacialglaciated
The Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, and includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene.
Even during glacial periods of the Quaternary, Manchuria, lowland Siberia, and central and northern Alaska, though extraordinarily cold, had such light snowfall that glaciers could not form.

Jules Desnoyers

The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.
In 1829 he proposed the term Quaternary to cover those formations which were formed just anterior to the present, following an antiquated method of referring to geologic eras as "Primary," "Secondary," "Tertiary," and so on.

Ice age

ice agesglacial maximumglacial period
Glaciation took place repeatedly during the Quaternary Ice Age – a term coined by Schimper in 1839 that began with the start of the Quaternary about 2.58 Mya and continues to the present day.
Individual pulses of cold climate within an ice age are termed "glacial periods" (or, alternatively, "glacials", "glaciations", "glacial stages", "stadials", "stades", or colloquially, "ice ages"), and intermittent warm periods within an ice age are called "interglacials" or "interstadials", with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history.

Quaternary extinction event

extinctionoverkill hypothesisextinct
The Quaternary period (from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present) saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.

Quaternary science

QuaternaryQuaternary geologistQuaternary geology
Quaternary science is an inter-disciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years.

List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions

2.588 ± 0.005 million years BP, the Quaternary period and Pleistocene epoch begin.

Era (geology)

Eraerasgeologic era
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

Ice sheet

ice sheetscontinental glacierice-sheet
The Quaternary Period is typically defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred.

Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycleMilankovitch theoryMilankovich cycle
The Quaternary Period is typically defined by the cyclic growth and decay of continental ice sheets associated with Milankovitch cycles and the associated climate and environmental changes that occurred.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
In 1759 Giovanni Arduino proposed that the geological strata of northern Italy could be divided into four successive formations or "orders" (quattro ordini).

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.

Seine

River SeineSeine RiverSeine valley
The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.

Rock (geology)

stonerockrocks
The term "quaternary" was introduced by Jules Desnoyers in 1829 for sediments of France's Seine Basin that seemed clearly to be younger than Tertiary Period rocks.