A report on Quebec

A depiction of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, 1844
Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from Wendake. New France had largely peaceful relations with the Indigenous people, such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of the Huron by their mutual enemy, the Iroquois, many fled from Ontario to Quebec.
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys.
The Province of Quebec in 1774
The Battle of Saint-Eustache was the final battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion.
George-Étienne Cartier, creator of the Quebec state and premier of Canada East
Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and during the Grande Noirceur
"Maîtres chez nous" was the electoral slogan of the Liberal Party during the 1962 election.
René Lévesque, one of the architects of the Quiet Revolution, and the Premier of Quebec's first modern sovereignist government
Map of Quebec
Michel's falls on Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean
Köppen climate types of Quebec
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The Parliament Building in Quebec City
The seventeen administrative regions of Quebec.
The Édifice Ernest-Cormier is the courthouse for the Quebec Court of Appeal in Montreal
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
Map of aboriginal communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique helps to advance scientific knowledge and to train a new generation of students in various scientific and technological sectors.
Quebec's exports to the international market. The United States is the country which buys the most Québécois exports by far. (2011)
The Beauharnois generating station, operated by Hydro-Québec
A mockup of the Airbus A220 (formerly the Bombardier CSeries), originally developed by Bombardier Aerospace
The Château Frontenac is the most photographed hotel in the world.
In 1969, Héroux-Devtek designed and manufactured the undercarriage of the Apollo Lunar Module.
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers du Québec
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.
La Cavalière by Charles Daudelin, 1963, installed in front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts in Quebec City
Maison Routhier in Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism.
A classic poutine from La Banquise in Montreal
The Montreal Canadiens at the Bell Centre
St-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations at Maisonneuve park in Montréal
The Fleurdelisé flying at Place d'Armes in Montreal
Canada in the 18th century.
The Province of Quebec from 1763 to 1783.
Lower Canada from 1791 to 1841. (Patriots' War in 1837, Canada East in 1841)
Quebec from 1867 to 1927.
Quebec today. Quebec (in blue) has a border dispute with Labrador (in red).
Different forest areas of Quebec. 1. Middle Arctic Tundra
2. Low Arctic Tundra
3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
7. Eastern Canadian Forests
8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
10. New England/Acadian Forests
11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

- Quebec

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Jacques Cartier at Hochelaga. Arriving in 1535, Cartier was the first European to visit the area.
French authorities surrender the city of Montreal to the British after the Articles of Capitulation was signed in 1760.
View of Lachine Canal in 1826, a year after it opened. It bypassed the rapids west of the city, linking Montreal with other continental markets.
Political protests from Tories led to the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal in 1849.
An anti-conscription rally in Montreal, 1917. During both World Wars, the city saw protest against the implementation of conscription.
Lighting of the Olympic Torch inside Montreal's Olympic Stadium. The city hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics.
The island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers.
Winters in Montreal bring cold, snowy, windy, and at times, icy weather.
Many colonial era buildings can be found in Old Montreal with several dating as far back as the late 17th century.
Habitat 67 is a model community and housing complex developed for Expo 67 World Fair.
Map of boroughs & neighbourhoods on the island of Montreal.
A view of Downtown Montreal from Mont Royal. Many neighbourhoods, including downtown, are located in the borough of Ville-Marie.
Place Jacques-Cartier is a major public square and attraction in Old Montreal.
View of Mont-Royal's eastern slope from the George-Étienne Cartier Monument. The park is one of Montreal's largest open space reserves.
The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world, handling over 26 million tonnes of cargo annually.
Tour de la Bourse has been home to the Montreal Exchange from 1965 to 2018, subsequently also including offices of various companies, entities and professional firms.
Montreal Fireworks Festival is the world's largest annual fireworks festival. The city hosts a number of festivals annually.
View of the Notre-Dame Basilica from Place d'Armes. The number of churches in Montreal led it to be called "the city of a hundred steeples".
Opened in 1996, the Bell Centre is a sports and entertainment complex, and also serves as the home arena for the Montreal Canadiens.
Montreal is the site of the Canadian Grand Prix, an annual Formula One auto race.
The Olympic Stadium was built for the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. It is used by MLS's CF Montréal for select games.
Completed in 1878, Montreal City Hall is the seat of local government.
Established in 1821, McGill University is the oldest operating university in Montreal.
Université de Montréal from the Montreal Metro station. The institution is the largest university in the city.
Montreal serves as a hub for Quebec's autoroute system of controlled-access highways.
A train departs from Acadie station. The Montreal Metro has 68 stations and four lines.
An Air Canada flight flies past the company's corporate headquarters, located at Montréal–Trudeau International Airport.
Central Station is a major inter-city and commuter rail hub for the city.

Montreal (officially Montréal, ; ) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec.


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One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

Typical landscape of the Canadian Shield at Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park, located in Central Ontario
Köppen climate types of Ontario
Cold northwesterly wind over the Great Lakes creating lake-effect snow. Lake-effect snow most frequently occurs in the snowbelt regions of the province.
A 1755 map of the Pays d'en Haut region of New France, an area that included most of Ontario
A monument in Hamilton commemorating the United Empire Loyalists, a group of settlers who fled the United States during or after the American Revolution
Depiction of the Battle of Queenston Heights, during the War of 1812. Upper Canada was an active theatre of operation during the conflict.
A map highlighting the Canadas, with Upper Canada in orange, and Lower Canada in green. In 1841, the two colonies were united to form the Province of Canada.
Oliver Mowat, Premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896
Law enforcement confiscate stores of alcohol in Elk Lake in an effort to enforce prohibition. The prohibition measures were introduced in 1916 and were not repealed until 1927.
A monument commemorating the immigrant family in Toronto. The province saw a large number of migrants settle in Ontario in the decades following World War II.
Evolution of the borders of Ontario since Canadian Confederation in 1867
Population density of Ontario
English and French displayed on a gantry sign. Communities with sizeable Francophone populations are able to receive provincial services in French.
Container ship at Algoma Steel. The Great Lakes provide ocean access for industries in the province's interior.
A worker at the Oakville Assembly installs a battery in an automobile. The automotive industry is a contributor to the economy of Ontario.
Toronto's Financial District serves as the centre for Canada's financial services.
Aerial view of farms in Waterloo. A significant portion of the land in Southern Ontario is used as farmland.
Grapevines growing in Prince Edward County, a wine-growing region
A sign marking the Ottawa Greenbelt, an initiative to protect farmland and limit urban sprawl
The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is one of three nuclear power stations in Ontario.
The Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations are hydroelectric plants located in Niagara Falls.
Osgoode Hall houses the Court of Appeal for Ontario, the appellate court for the province.
The Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park. The building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Map of the counties, regional municipalities, districts, and municipalities of Ontario.
An Ontario licence plate with the slogan Yours to Discover at the bottom of the plate
Thunder Bay International Airport is one of five international airports operating in Ontario.
Highway 400 in Seguin. The roadway forms a part of the province's 400-series highways.
Map of Upper Canada, 1811
Map of Canada West from 1855. Canada West formed the western portion of the Province of Canada.

Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area (after Quebec).

Quebec City

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Depiction of Jacques Cartier's meeting with the indigenous people of Stadacona in 1535
Plaque honouring the first settlers of Québec City. (affixed to back of monument to Guillaume Couillard, which accompanies those to Louis Hébert and Marie Rollet). Parc Montmorency, Québec City.
After a campaign of three months British forces captured Quebec City after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
British regulars and Canadian militia engage the Continental Army in the streets of the city. The Americans' failure to take Quebec in 1775 led to the end of their campaign in Canada.
Mackenzie King, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and the Earl of Athlone (left to right) at the First Quebec Conference, a secret military conference held in World War II
The Promontory of Quebec at the narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River and surrounded by the Laurentian Mountains
Winter scene at the Château Frontenac
The St. Jean (St. John) Gate
Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City
The Petit Champlain, containing the pictured Rue du Petit-Champlain, is claimed to be the oldest commercial district in North America.
Québec, photographed from Lévis
Map of the six boroughs that make up Quebec City
North-east aerial view from the Quebec Bridge area. The foreground shows the Sainte-Foy neighbourhood of Saint-Louis and the modern buildings of boulevard Laurier.
Hôtel-Dieu de Québec is one of three hospitals operated by CHUQ, the largest employer in Quebec City.
Saint-Roch's garden, lower town
Quebec City's Winter Carnival is the world's largest winter festival.
Montmorency Falls is a major waterfall in the city's east end.
The Québec Capitales play their home games at Stade Canac, a stadium primarily used for baseball.
Videotron Centre is an indoor arena and is presently used as the home arena for the major junior hockey Quebec Remparts.
The provincial Parliament Building is located in the city.
Quebec City Hall serves as the seat for the Quebec City Council.
An alley of Université Laval campus
The Pierre-Laporte Quebec Bridges connect the city with neighbouring Lévis.
RTC's Métrobus is a six lines, higher frequency and capacity bus service.

Quebec City ( or ; Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec.

A poster used to advocate for Quebec's sovereignty during the 1995 referendum.

Quebec sovereignty movement

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A poster used to advocate for Quebec's sovereignty during the 1995 referendum.
Linguistic map of Quebec. Blue means a large Francophone majority, green a small Francophone majority, yellow a small Anglophone majority, red a large Anglophone majority, and grey an Indigenous-language majority
Logo for the OUI comity during the 1980 referendum.
1995 referendum results by constituency
Flag of the FLQ

The Quebec sovereignty movement (Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement whose objective is to achieve the sovereignty of Quebec, a province of Canada since 1867, including in all matters related to any provision of Quebec's public order that is applicable on its territory.


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Country in North America.

Country in North America.

Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), New France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec.
War of 1812 heroine Laura Secord warning British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams
Animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867
A copy of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
A topographic map of Canada, in polar projection (for 90° W), showing elevations shaded from green to brown (higher)
Terrestrial ecozones and ecoprovinces of Canada. Ecozone are identified with a unique colour. Ecoprovinces are subdivisions of ecozones and are identified with a unique numeric code
Köppen climate classification types of Canada
Parliament Hill, home of the federal government in Canada's capital city, Ottawa
The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament Hill
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill
The Canadian delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, May 1945
A Canadian McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet in Cold Lake, Alberta
Political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories
The Toronto financial district is the second-largest financial centre in North America, the seventh-largest globally in employment and the heart of Canada's finance industry.
The Canadian-built Space Shuttle robotic arm (left), referred to as Canadarm, transferred the P5 truss segment over to the Canadian-built space station robotic arm, referred to as Canadarm2
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada and spans 1200 km.
Health care cost rise based on total expenditure on health as percent of GDP. Countries shown are the United States, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
14th G7 summit leaders at the University of Toronto: (left to right) Jacques Delors, Ciriaco De Mita, Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan, Brian Mulroney, François Mitterrand, Helmut Kohl and Noboru Takeshita
Approximately 98 percent of Canadians can speak either or both English and French:
Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli, in Toronto
The mother beaver on the Canadian parliament's Peace Tower. The five flowers on the shield each represent an ethnicity—Tudor rose: English; Fleur de lis: French; thistle: Scottish; shamrock: Irish; and leek: Welsh.
A Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) satellite truck, used for live television broadcasts
The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada.
Canada's 1928 Olympic Gold Medal hockey team, the Toronto Varsity Blues
The Toronto financial district is the second-largest financial centre in North America, the seventh-largest globally in employment and the heart of Canada's finance industry.
Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins per census division of 2006
CanadianEnglishFrenchScottishGermanItalianFirst NationsUkrainianIndianInuit
The Canadian men's national ice hockey team celebrates shortly after winning the gold medal final at the 2010 Winter Olympics.

To accommodate the influx of English-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.

New Brunswick

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One of the ten provinces (and three territories) of Canada.

One of the ten provinces (and three territories) of Canada.

Fort Beauséjour at the Isthmus of Chignecto. The French built the fort in 1751 in an effort to limit British expansion into continental Acadia.
A romanticized depiction of the arrival of the Loyalists in New Brunswick
An Intercolonial Railway bridge, 1875. The railway was established as a result of Confederation.
A provincial welcome sign in English and French, the two official languages of the province
Topographic map of New Brunswick
Furbish's lousewort is a herb endemic to the shores of the upper Saint John River.
The Hopewell Rocks are rock formations located at the upper reaches of the Bay of Fundy, near Hopewell Cape.
View of the Appalachian mountains from Mount Carleton Provincial Park
Population density of New Brunswick
The province's distribution of English and French is highly regional.
Uptown Saint John is a commercial hub and seaport for the province.
A New Brunswick pulp mill owned by J. D. Irving
Sir Howard Douglas Hall at the University of New Brunswick is the oldest university building still in use in Canada.
The New Brunswick Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the provincial legislative assembly.
The Imperial Theatre in Saint John hosts the productions of the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada and Theatre New Brunswick.
The Owens Art Gallery at Mount Allison University is the oldest university-operated art gallery in Canada.
Administrative areas of New Brunswick (historic county borders also shown):
Local service district
Rural community
Indian reserve

New Brunswick is bordered by Quebec to the north, Nova Scotia to the east, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the northeast, the Bay of Fundy to the southeast, and the U.S. state of Maine to the west.

St. Lawrence River

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Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

Large river in the middle latitudes of North America, flowing from Lake Ontario in a roughly northeasterly direction into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, connecting the Great Lakes to the North Atlantic Ocean and forming the primary drainage outflow of the Great Lakes Basin.

The Champlain Sea
Map of 1543 showing Cartier's discoveries
Basque settlements and sites dating from the 16th and 17th centuries
A watercolour painting by Elizabeth Simcoe created [ca. 1792] depicting a bend in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec from the Simcoe Family fonds held at the Archives of Ontario.
Watching fin whales off Tadoussac

The river traverses the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec as well as the U.S. state of New York, and is part of the international boundary between Canada and the United States.

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins

French Canadians

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Ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins
Habitants by Cornelius Krieghoff (1852)
Languages in Quebec
Université de Saint-Boniface in Manitoba
Major ethnicities in Canada
Distribution of French Americans in the United States
Distribution of the proportion of French Canadian across Canada.
Distribution of French in the United States
The fleur-de-lis, symbol of French Canada
Quebec stop sign

French settlers from Normandy, Perche, Beauce, Brittany, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois, Saintonge and Gascony were the first Europeans to permanently colonize what is now Quebec, parts of Ontario, Acadia, and select areas of Western Canada, all in Canada (See French colonization of the Americas.) Their colonies of New France (also commonly called Canada) stretched across what today are the Maritime provinces, southern Quebec and Ontario, as well as the entire Mississippi River Valley.

Canadian Territory at Confederation

Canadian Confederation

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The process by which three British North American provinces, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada, on July 1, 1867.

The process by which three British North American provinces, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada, on July 1, 1867.

Canadian Territory at Confederation
George-Étienne Cartier
Map of the Eastern British Provinces in North America at the time of Canadian Confederation, 1867.
Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House, September 1864
Thomas D'Arcy McGee in 1868
Delegates at the Quebec Conference, October 1864
Queen Victoria granted royal assent to the British North America Act on March 29, 1867
Proclamation of Canadian Confederation
John A. Macdonald became the first prime minister of Canada.
1885 photo of Robert Harris' 1884 painting, Conference at Quebec in 1864, to settle the basics of a union of the British North American Provinces, also known as The Fathers of Confederation. The original painting was destroyed in the 1916 Parliament Buildings Centre Block fire. The scene is an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec City conference sites and attendees.

Upon Confederation, Canada consisted of four provinces: Ontario and Quebec, which had been split out from the Province of Canada, and the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.


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Maine State House, designed by Charles Bulfinch, built 1829–1832
Misty Morning, Coast of MaineArthur Parton (1842–1914). Between 1865 and 1870, Brooklyn Museum.
A map of Maine and surrounding regions
The Maine coast and Portland Head Light
Rocky shoreline in Acadia National Park
Autumn in the Hundred-Mile Wilderness
Köppen climate types of Maine, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Winter in Bangor
Maine population density map
Bath Iron Works naval shipbuilding
Lobstering in Portland
Maine blueberries. The U.S.'s only commercial producers of wild blueberries are located in Maine.
Portland International Jetport
The Penobscot Narrows Bridge, carrying U.S. Route 1 and Maine State Route 3 over the Penobscot River
A southbound Downeaster passenger train at Ocean Park, Maine, as viewed from the cab of a northbound train
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
The University of Maine is the state's only research university.
Colby, Bates, and Bowdoin (pictured) Colleges form the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium
College hockey being played at the Cross Insurance Center
Two moose in the Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. The moose is Maine's state mammal.
1. Portland
2. Lewiston
3. Bangor
4. South Portland
5. Auburn
6. Biddeford
7. Sanford
8. Brunswick
9. Saco
10. Scarborough
11. Westbrook
12. Augusta
Party registration by county: (November 2020)

Maine is a state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively.