RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNARNAsssRNARNA genomedouble stranded RNAtranscriptRNA biologydouble-stranded RNA (dsRNA)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.wikipedia
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Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translation
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand.
They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Uracil

Uuracil nucleotidesU'''racil
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
Researchers generally think that current life on Earth descends from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first life to have existed.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.
It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses).

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.
While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids.

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals.
These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA.

Cytosine

CC'''ytosinecytosines
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.
Cytosine ( C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Guanine

GG'''uanineGG
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

Nucleobase

basesnucleobasesbase
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.
The ability of nucleobases to form base pairs and to stack one upon another leads directly to long-chain helical structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.

Ribosomal RNA

rRNAribosomalrRNAs
This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form coded proteins. Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is a noncoding type of RNA that acts as the primary building block for ribosomes and the assembly line on which protein synthesis occurs in those ribosomes, essential to all living organisms.

Non-coding RNA

RNAncRNAnon-coding RNAs
Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.
The synthesis of proteins involves multiple enzyme-mediated processes to transcribe genetic information from the DNA to RNA and subsequently translate that information to synthesize the specified protein from amino acids.

Protein biosynthesis

protein synthesissynthesissynthesized
One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes.
The cistron DNA is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates.

Adenine

AA'''denineadenine nucleotides
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.
It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.

Wobble base pair

wobblewobble hypothesiswobble base
Inosine plays a key role in the wobble hypothesis of the genetic code.
A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.

Nucleic acid tertiary structure

tertiary structurebase stackingcoaxial stacking
The functional form of single-stranded RNA molecules, just like proteins, frequently requires a specific tertiary structure.
RNA and DNA molecules are capable of diverse functions ranging from molecular recognition to catalysis.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.
With the exception of certain types of RNA, most other biological molecules are relatively inert elements upon which proteins act.

Nucleic acid nomenclature

213
Molecular biologists use several shorthand terms when referring to nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA and RNA, collectively referred to as nucleic acid nomenclature.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
Synthesis of RNA is usually catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription.
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.