Polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.- RNA
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Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate.
They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Uracil (symbol U or Ura) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Guanine (symbol G or Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which, in turn, are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
The ability of nucleobases to form base pairs and to stack one upon another leads directly to long-chain helical structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Cytosine (symbol C or Cyt) is one of the four nucleobases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
All genetic information of an organism.
It consists of nucleotide sequences of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses).
Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA ) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length (in eukaryotes), that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
Compare untranslated regions.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules are involved in sequence-specific suppression of gene expression by double-stranded RNA, through translational or transcriptional repression.
Nucleobase (a purine derivative).
It also has functions in protein synthesis and as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.