Race (human categorization)

raceracialracesracial identityraciallyracial grouphuman racesracial diversityracial classificationinterracial
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.wikipedia
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White people

whitewhitesCaucasian
The establishment of racial boundaries often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly and often exclusively for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view.

Racial discrimination

discriminationraceracial
Racial discrimination often coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior.
Racial discrimination is any discrimination against individuals on the basis of their skin colour, or racial or ethnic origin.

Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocides
Racism has led to many instances of tragedy, including slavery and genocide.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

Critical race theory

critical racecritical race studiesCritical race theorists
In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
Critical race theory (CRT) is a theoretical framework in the social sciences that uses critical theory to examine society and culture as they relate to categorizations of race, law, and power.

Historical race concepts

Historical definitions of raceraceraces
The concept of race as a rough division of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) has a long and complicated history.

Racial formation theory

racial formationracial formations
In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
Racial formation theory is an analytical tool in sociology, developed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant, which is used to look at race as a socially constructed identity, where the content and importance of racial categories are determined by social, economic, and political forces.

Scientific racism

biological racismscientific racistrace science
Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic.
The extended wording on the title page, which adds by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, uses the general term "races" as an alternative for "varieties" and does not carry the modern connotation of human races.

Polygenism

polygenistpolygenesispolygenic
In the last two decades of the 18th century, the theory of polygenism, the belief that different races had evolved separately in each continent and shared no common ancestor, was advocated in England by historian Edward Long and anatomist Charles White, in Germany by ethnographers Christoph Meiners and Georg Forster, and in France by Julien-Joseph Virey.
Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins (polygenesis).

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

BlumenbachJohann BlumenbachJ. F. Blumenbach
The 1775 treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid race, the Mongoloid race, the Ethiopian race (later termed Negroid), the American Indian race, and the Malayan race, but he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.
His teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to his classification of human races, of which he claimed there were five, Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American.

Malay race

MalayMalaysMalayan
The 1775 treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid race, the Mongoloid race, the Ethiopian race (later termed Negroid), the American Indian race, and the Malayan race, but he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.
Since Blumenbach, many anthropologists have rejected his theory of five races, citing the enormous complexity of classifying races.

Human taxonomy

Homo sapiens sapiensHomininasubspecies
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race often is used in a naive or simplistic way, and argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, and (as far as applicable) subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens.
sapiens'') into subspecies is closely tied to the recognition of major racial groupings based on human genetic variation.

Race and ethnicity in Brazil

Race in BrazilEthnic groups in Brazilvaried racial categories
The book appeared at a moment when there was a widespread belief among social scientists that some races were superior to other ones, and in the same period when the Nazi Party in Germany was on the rise.

Mongoloid

MongolianMongoloid raceMongoloids
The 1775 treatise "The Natural Varieties of Mankind", by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach proposed five major divisions: the Caucasoid race, the Mongoloid race, the Ethiopian race (later termed Negroid), the American Indian race, and the Malayan race, but he did not propose any hierarchy among the races.
Historically, the racial classification of the Turkic peoples was sometimes given as "Turanid".

Monogenism

monogenistmonogenesisenvironmentalist monogenism
Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding of the Anthropological Society of London (1863), which, during the period of the American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stance, their underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": a substantial racist view by the former, and a more liberal view on race by the latter.
Monogenism or sometimes monogenesis is the theory of human origins which posits a common descent for all human races.

François Bernier

Francois BernierF. Bernier
The first post-Graeco-Roman published classification of humans into distinct races seems to be François Bernier's Nouvelle division de la terre par les différents espèces ou races qui l'habitent ("New division of Earth by the different species or races which inhabit it"), published in 1684.
His 1684 publication Nouvelle division de la terre par les différentes espèces ou races qui l'habitent (A new division of the Earth) is considered the first published post-Classical classification of humans into distinct races.

Folk taxonomy

folk taxonomiesfolkfolk taxon
Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits.
Some anthropologists say race is a folk taxonomy.

Political sociology

socio-politicalsociopoliticalpolitical sociologist
These constructs develop within various legal, economic, and sociopolitical contexts, and may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations.

Ethnological Society of London

Ethnological SocietyTransactions of the Ethnological Society
Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding of the Anthropological Society of London (1863), which, during the period of the American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stance, their underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": a substantial racist view by the former, and a more liberal view on race by the latter.
Edwards had been lecturing for a decade on the deficiency of considering the races as purely linguistic groups.

Ashley Montagu

Ashley MontagueMontagu, AshleyIsrael Ehrenberg
The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were the anthropologists Franz Boas, who provided evidence of phenotypic plasticity due to environmental factors, and Ashley Montagu, who relied on evidence from genetics.
Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (1905 – 1999) — born Israel Ehrenberg — was a British-American anthropologist who popularized the study of topics such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development.

Franz Boas

BoasianBoas, FranzFranz Boaz
The first to challenge the concept of race on empirical grounds were the anthropologists Franz Boas, who provided evidence of phenotypic plasticity due to environmental factors, and Ashley Montagu, who relied on evidence from genetics.
Boas was one of the most prominent opponents of the then-popular ideologies of scientific racism, the idea that race is a biological concept and that human behavior is best understood through the typology of biological characteristics.

Racialism

racialistracialracial pride
In the early 20th century, many anthropologists taught that race was an entirely biologically phenomenon and that this was core to a person's behavior and identity, a position commonly called racial essentialism.
Racialism is the belief that the human species are naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories.

Race and intelligence

racial differences in intelligenceblack-white differences on tests of cognitive abilityintellectually inferior
A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectual, behavioral, and moral qualities.
Finally, a fourth position is that either or both of the concepts of race and general intelligence are poorly constructed and therefore any comparisons between races are meaningless.

Race and genetics

differences between themgenetic basis to racial groupsinferred from multilocus genetic data
In his 2003 paper, "Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin's Fallacy", A. W. F. Edwards argued that rather than using a locus-by-locus analysis of variation to derive taxonomy, it is possible to construct a human classification system based on characteristic genetic patterns, or clusters inferred from multilocus genetic data.
The relationship between race and genetics is relevant to the controversy concerning race classification.

Julien-Joseph Virey

In the last two decades of the 18th century, the theory of polygenism, the belief that different races had evolved separately in each continent and shared no common ancestor, was advocated in England by historian Edward Long and anatomist Charles White, in Germany by ethnographers Christoph Meiners and Georg Forster, and in France by Julien-Joseph Virey.
Virey was interested in the origin of the human races.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
In the United States the racial theories of Thomas Jefferson were influential.
White Americans (mostly European ancestry group with 73.1% of total population) are the largest racial group; black Americans are the nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group.