Racial segregation in the United States

segregationracial segregationsegregatedsegregationistracially segregateddesegregationschool desegregationsegregation in the United Statessegregatesegregated South
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, refers to the segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation in the United States along racial lines.wikipedia
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Separate but equal

separate but equal educationdrinking from the fountain reserved for blacksequal facilities were rarely provided
The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), so long as "separate but equal" facilities were provided, a requirement that was rarely met in practice.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law, according to which racial segregation did not necessarily violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all people.

Earl Warren

WarrenChief Justice Earl WarrenChief Justice Warren
The doctrine was overturned in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) unanimously by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, and in the following years the Warren Court further ruled against racial segregation in several landmark cases including Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), which helped bring an end to the Jim Crow laws.
Warren helped arrange a unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), which ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.

Brown v. Board of Education

Brown vs. Board of EducationBrown v. Board of Education of TopekaBrown v. Board
The doctrine was overturned in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) unanimously by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, and in the following years the Warren Court further ruled against racial segregation in several landmark cases including Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), which helped bring an end to the Jim Crow laws.
For much of the sixty years preceding the Brown case, race relations in the United States had been dominated by racial segregation.

Warren Court

Warrendue process revolutionthe Warren majorities
The doctrine was overturned in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) unanimously by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, and in the following years the Warren Court further ruled against racial segregation in several landmark cases including Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), which helped bring an end to the Jim Crow laws.
In addition, the court was both applauded and criticized for bringing an end to racial segregation in the United States, incorporating the Bill of Rights (i.e. including it in the 14th Amendment Due Process clause), and ending officially sanctioned voluntary prayer in public schools.

Residential segregation in the United States

residential segregationsegregationsegregated
De facto segregation continues today in areas such as residential segregation and school segregation because of both contemporary behavior and the historical legacy of de jure segregation.
Hypersegregation is high segregation across all dimensions.

Jim Crow laws

Jim CrowJim Crow eraJim Crow law
The doctrine was overturned in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) unanimously by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren, and in the following years the Warren Court further ruled against racial segregation in several landmark cases including Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States (1964), which helped bring an end to the Jim Crow laws. Plessy thus allowed segregation, which became standard throughout the southern United States, and represented the institutionalization of the Jim Crow period. De jure segregation mandated the separation of races by law, and was the form imposed by slave codes before the Civil War and by Black Codes and Jim Crow laws following the war.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.

Civil rights movement

American Civil Rights Movementcivil rightscivil rights era
The repeal of "separate but equal" laws was a major focus of the Civil Rights Movement.
The civil rights movement (also known as the American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long struggle by African Americans to end legalized racial discrimination, disenfranchisement and racial segregation in the United States.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
Plessy thus allowed segregation, which became standard throughout the southern United States, and represented the institutionalization of the Jim Crow period.
Some other aspects of the historical and cultural development of the South have been influenced by the institution of slave labor on plantations in the Deep South to an extent seen nowhere else in the United States; the presence of a large proportion of African Americans in the population; support for the doctrine of states' rights, and the legacy of racial tension magnified by the Civil War and Reconstruction Era, as seen in thousands of lynchings (mostly from 1880 to 1930), the segregated system of separate schools and public facilities known as "Jim Crow laws", that lasted until the 1960s, and the widespread use of poll taxes and other methods to frequently deny black people of the right to vote or hold office until the 1960s.

Woodrow Wilson

WilsonPresident WilsonPresident Woodrow Wilson
President Woodrow Wilson did not oppose segregation practices by autonomous department heads of the federal Civil Service, according to Brian J. Cook in his work, Democracy And Administration: Woodrow Wilson's Ideas And The Challenges Of Public Management.
To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments.

Rosa Parks

ParksRosa L. ParksAfrican-American Civil Rights activist of the same name
Public segregation was challenged by individual citizens on rare occasions but had minimal impact on civil rights issues, until December, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to be moved to the back of a bus for a white passenger.
She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation.

Tuskegee Airmen

Tuskegee AirmanTuskeegee AirmenTuskeegee Airman
World War II saw the first black military pilots in the U.S., the Tuskegee Airmen, 99th Fighter Squadron, and also saw the segregated 183rd Engineer Combat Battalion participate in the liberation of Jewish survivors at Buchenwald.
During World War II, black Americans in many U.S. states were still subject to the Jim Crow laws and the American military was racially segregated, as was much of the federal government.

Great Migration (African American)

Great MigrationThe Great Migrationmigrated
Blacks who moved to the North in the Great Migration after World War I sometimes could live without the same degree of oppression experienced in the South, but the racism and discrimination still existed.
It was caused primarily by the poor economic conditions as well as the prevalent racial segregation and discrimination in the Southern states where Jim Crow laws were upheld.

The Beatles

BeatlesBeatleBeatlesque
On September 11, 1964, John Lennon announced The Beatles would not play to a segregated audience in Jacksonville, Florida.
During the 1964 US tour, the group were confronted with the reality of racial segregation in the country at the time, particularly in the South.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
These state laws always targeted marriage between whites and blacks, and in some states also prohibited marriages between whites and Native Americans or Asians.
Plecker, a segregationist, believed that the state's Native Americans had been "mongrelized" by intermarriage with African Americans; to him, ancestry determined identity, rather than culture.

Racial segregation

segregationsegregatedsegregationist
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, refers to the segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation in the United States along racial lines.
Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American Apartheid".

School segregation in the United States

reserved for white childrenschool segregationsegregated schools
De facto segregation continues today in areas such as residential segregation and school segregation because of both contemporary behavior and the historical legacy of de jure segregation.

Black Codes (United States)

Black CodesBlack CodeBlack Laws
De jure segregation mandated the separation of races by law, and was the form imposed by slave codes before the Civil War and by Black Codes and Jim Crow laws following the war.

Historically black colleges and universities

historically black collegehistorically blackHBCU
The American Missionary Association supported the development and establishment of several historically black colleges, such as Fisk University and Shaw University.
During the period of segregation in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Act, the overwhelming majority of higher education institutions were predominantly white and disqualified African Americans from enrollment.

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Fair Housing ActFair Housing Act of 1968Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968
De jure segregation was outlawed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968.

Segregation academy

segregation academieswave of private schoolsacademies
The desire of some whites to avoid having their children attend integrated schools has been a factor in white flight to the suburbs, and in the foundation of numerous segregation academies and private schools which most African-American students, though technically permitted to attend, are unable to afford.
Segregation academies are private schools in the Southern United States that were founded in the mid-20th century by white parents to avoid having their children in desegregated public schools.

African-American neighborhood

African American neighborhoodblack neighborhoodblack neighborhoods
The creation of expressways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors.
The formation of black neighborhoods are closely linked to the history of segregation in the United States, either through formal laws or as a product of social norms.

Freedom Riders

Freedom RidesFreedom RiderFreedom Ride
In 1961 Congress of Racial Equality director James Farmer, other CORE members and some Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee members traveled as a mixed race group, Freedom Riders, on Greyhound buses from Washington, D.C., headed towards New Orleans.
Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.

James Farmer

James L. Farmer, Jr.James Farmer Jr.James L. Farmer Jr.
In 1961 Congress of Racial Equality director James Farmer, other CORE members and some Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee members traveled as a mixed race group, Freedom Riders, on Greyhound buses from Washington, D.C., headed towards New Orleans.
It was later called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and was dedicated to ending racial segregation in the United States through nonviolence.

Anniston, Alabama

AnnistonAnniston, ALAnniston High School
In Anniston, Alabama the Ku Klux Klan attacked the buses, setting one bus on fire.
The Freedom Riders were riding an integrated bus to protest Alabama's Jim Crow segregation laws that denied African Americans their civil rights.

Congress of Racial Equality

CORECongress for Racial EqualityCongress on Racial Equality
In 1961 Congress of Racial Equality director James Farmer, other CORE members and some Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee members traveled as a mixed race group, Freedom Riders, on Greyhound buses from Washington, D.C., headed towards New Orleans.
At the time of CORE's founding Gandhi was still engaged in non-violent resistance against British rule in India; CORE believed that nonviolent civil disobedience could also be used by African-Americans to challenge racial segregation in the United States.