Radar

radar stationradarsradar systemmicrowave radarair search radarradar equationcentimetric radarradar systemsaircraft radarradar stations
Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.wikipedia
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Weather radar

Doppler weather radarradarDoppler radar
It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.).

Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
The term RADAR was coined in 1940 by the United States Navy as an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging or RAdio Direction And Ranging.
Examples in reference works that make the distinction include "NATO", "scuba", and "radar" for acronyms; and "FBI", "CRT", and "HTML" for initialisms.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s).
Microwaves are widely used in modern technology, for example in point-to-point communication links, wireless networks, microwave radio relay networks, radar, satellite and spacecraft communication, medical diathermy and cancer treatment, remote sensing, radio astronomy, particle accelerators, spectroscopy, industrial heating, collision avoidance systems, garage door openers and keyless entry systems, and for cooking food in microwave ovens.

Marine radar

marine search radarRadar Surveillanceradar systems
It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.
Marine radars are X band or S band radars on ships, used to detect other ships and land obstacles, to provide bearing and distance for collision avoidance and navigation at sea.

Radar astronomy

radarRadar observationsplanetary radar
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.
The strength of the radar return signal is proportional to the inverse fourth-power of the distance.

Radio wave

radio wavesradioradio signal
Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio waves are very widely used in modern technology for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites, wireless computer networks and many other applications.

Transmitter

radio transmittertransmittersradio transmitters
A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s).
Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons.

Ground-penetrating radar

ground penetrating radargeoradarGPR
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.

Lidar

laser altimeterlaser radarlight detection and ranging
One example is "lidar", which uses predominantly infrared light from lasers rather than radio waves.
The name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging (sometimes light imaging, detection, and ranging), was originally a portmanteau of light and radar.

Digital signal processing

DSPsignal processingdigital signal processing (DSP)
High tech radar systems are associated with digital signal processing, machine learning and are capable of extracting useful information from very high noise levels.
DSP applications include audio and speech processing, sonar, radar and other sensor array processing, spectral density estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image processing, signal processing for telecommunications, control systems, biomedical engineering, seismology, among others.

Christian Hülsmeyer

The German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects".
He is often credited with the invention of radar, but his apparatus, called the "Telemobiloscope," could not directly measure distance to a target and thus does not merit this full distinction.

Direction finding

radio direction findingradio direction-findingdirection-finding
Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the use of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission.
This can refer to radio or other forms of wireless communication, including radar signals detection and monitoring (ELINT/ESM).

Robert Watson-Watt

Robert Watson WattRobert WattRobert Alexander Watson Watt
In 1915, Robert Watson-Watt used radio technology to provide advance warning to airmen and during the 1920s went on to lead the U.K. research establishment to make many advances using radio techniques, including the probing of the ionosphere and the detection of lightning at long distances.
Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt, KCB, FRS, FRAeS (13 April 1892 – 5 December 1973) was a British pioneer of radio direction finding and radar technology.

Arnold Wilkins

Arnold "Skip" WilkinsArnold F. 'Skip' WilkinsArnold F. Wilkins
Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units.
Arnold Frederic Wilkins OBE (20 February 1907 – 5 August 1985) was a pioneer in developing the use of radar.

Lawrence A. Hyland

L.A. "Pat" HylandHyland, Lawrence A.
Eight years later, Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft; this revelation led to a patent application as well as a proposal for further intensive research on radio-echo signals from moving targets to take place at NRL, where Taylor and Young were based at the time.
He is one of three individuals, with whom are credited in major contributions to the invention of radar, but is probably best known as the man who transformed Hughes Aircraft from Howard Hughes' aviation "hobby shop" into one of the world's leading technology companies.

Robert Morris Page

Robert M. Page
Full radar evolved as a pulsed system, and the first such elementary apparatus was demonstrated in December 1934 by the American Robert M. Page, working at the Naval Research Laboratory.
Robert Morris Page (2 June 1903 – 15 May 1992) was an American physicist who was a leading figure in the development of radar technology.

Albert H. Taylor

A. Hoyt TaylorHoyt TaylorTaylor, Albert H.
Across the Atlantic in 1922, after placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac River, U.S. Navy researchers A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out.
Albert Hoyt Taylor (January 1, 1879 in Chicago, IL – December 11, 1961 in Los Angeles, CA) was an American electrical engineer who made important early contributions to the development of radar.

Pavel K. Oshchepkov

P.K. Oshchepkov
During the same period, Soviet military engineer P.K. Oshchepkov, in collaboration with Leningrad Electrophysical Institute, produced an experimental apparatus, RAPID, capable of detecting an aircraft within 3 km of a receiver.
Pavel Kondratyevich Oshchepkov (June 24, 1908 – December 1, 1992) was a Russian physicist who had a leading role in the development of radio-location (radar) in the USSR.

Chain Home

early warning Chain Home radar systemBritish CH
This revelation led to the Daventry Experiment of 26 February 1935, using a powerful BBC shortwave transmitter as the source and their GPO receiver setup in a field while a bomber flew around the site. Also vital was the "Dowding system" of reporting and coordination to make best use of the radar information during tests of early deployment of radar in 1936 and 1937.
Chain Home, or CH for short, was the codename for the ring of coastal Early Warning radar stations built by the Royal Air Force (RAF) before and during the Second World War to detect and track aircraft.

Antenna (radio)

antennaantennasradio antenna
A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s).
These can be used to give the antenna a different behavior on receiving than it has on transmitting, which can be useful in applications like radar.

MIT Radiation Laboratory

Radiation LaboratoryMIT Radiation LabRad Lab
Alfred Lee Loomis organized the secret MIT Radiation Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts which developed microwave radar technology in the years 1941–45.
The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US).

Anti-aircraft warfare

anti-aircraftanti-aircraft gunair defense
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.
The first attempt to produce such a system used a 50 mm gun, but this proved inaccurate and a new 55 mm gun replaced it. The system used a centralised control system including both search and targeting radar, which calculated the aim point for the guns after considering windage and ballistics, and then sent electrical commands to the guns, which used hydraulics to point themselves at high speeds.

Monopulse radar

monopulsemonopulse technique
Later, in 1943, Page greatly improved radar with the monopulse technique that was used for many years in most radar applications.
Monopulse radar is a radar system that uses additional encoding of the radio signal to provide accurate directional information.

Radio spectrum

bandradio bandspectrum
A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s).
This convention began around World War 2 with military designations for frequencies used in radar, which was the first application of microwaves.

Dowding system

Air Defence systemcommand and control system
Also vital was the "Dowding system" of reporting and coordination to make best use of the radar information during tests of early deployment of radar in 1936 and 1937.
It used a widespread dedicated land-line telephone network to rapidly collect information from Chain Home (CH) radar stations and the Royal Observer Corps (ROC) in order to build a single image of the entire UK airspace and then direct defensive interceptor aircraft and anti-aircraft artillery against enemy targets.