Radar engineering details

radar sensorradar antennaradar sensors
Radar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers — determining an object's position or obstruction in the environment.wikipedia
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Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Radar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers — determining an object's position or obstruction in the environment.
Radar engineering details

Scattering

light scatteringscatteredscatter
Radar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers — determining an object's position or obstruction in the environment.

Solid angle

angular areasolid angles4-π
This includes field of view in terms of solid angle and maximum unambiguous range and velocity, as well as angular, range and velocity resolution.

Adaptive cruise control

autonomous cruise control systemactive cruise controlradar cruise control
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Radar altimeter

radio altimeterradar altimetryelectronic altimeter
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Air traffic management

ATM
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Early-warning radar

early warning radarearly warningair search radar
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Fire-control radar

fire control radarradarfire control
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Collision avoidance system

forward collision warningpre-collision systemprecrash system
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Ground-penetrating radar

ground penetrating radargeoradarGPR
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Surveillance

electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoring
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Weather forecasting

weather forecastweathermanweather forecasts
Applications of radar include adaptive cruise control, autonomous landing guidance, radar altimeter, air traffic management, early-warning radar, fire-control radar, forward warning collision sensing, ground penetrating radar, surveillance, and weather forecasting.

Phased array

phased array radarphased-arrayphased-array radar
This is done electronically, with a phased array antenna, or mechanically by rotating a physical antenna.

Monostatic radar

monostatic (single antenna) CW radarsmonostatic operation
The emitter and the receiver can be in the same place, as with the monostatic radars, or be separated as in the

Bandwidth (signal processing)

bandwidthbandwidthssignal bandwidth
Figures of merit of an ESA are the bandwidth, the effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and the G R /T quotient, the field of view.

Effective radiated power

ERPpowerEIRP
Figures of merit of an ESA are the bandwidth, the effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP) and the G R /T quotient, the field of view.

Power dividers and directional couplers

directional couplercombinerdirectional couplers
For example, the generation of wideband monopulse receive patterns depends on a feed network which combines two subarrays using a wideband hybrid coupler.

Active electronically scanned array

AESAactive phased arrayAESA radar
Active versus passive: In an active electronically scanned array (AESA), each antenna is connected to a T/R module featuring solid state power amplification (SSPA). An AESA has distributed power amplification and offers high performance and reliability, but is expensive. In a passive electronically scanned array, the array is connected to a single T/R module featuring vacuum electronics devices (VED). A PESA has centralized power amplification and offers cost savings, but requires low-loss phase shifters

Passive electronically scanned array

PESAelectronically scannedelectronically steered
Active versus passive: In an active electronically scanned array (AESA), each antenna is connected to a T/R module featuring solid state power amplification (SSPA). An AESA has distributed power amplification and offers high performance and reliability, but is expensive. In a passive electronically scanned array, the array is connected to a single T/R module featuring vacuum electronics devices (VED). A PESA has centralized power amplification and offers cost savings, but requires low-loss phase shifters

Antenna aperture

apertureaperture efficiencyeffective area
Aperture: The Antenna aperture of a radar sensor is real or synthetic. Real-beam radar sensors allow for real-time target sensing. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allow for an angular resolution beyond real beamwidth by moving the aperture over the target, and adding the echoes coherently.

Synthetic-aperture radar

synthetic aperture radarSARsynthetic aperture
Aperture: The Antenna aperture of a radar sensor is real or synthetic. Real-beam radar sensors allow for real-time target sensing. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allow for an angular resolution beyond real beamwidth by moving the aperture over the target, and adding the echoes coherently.

Group delay and phase delay

group delayphase delaydelay distortion
Architecture: The field of view is scanned with a highly directive frequency-orthogonal (slotted waveguide), spatially orthogonal (switched beamforming networks), or time-orthogonal beams. In case of time-orthogonal scanning, the beam of an ESA is scanned preferably by applying a progressive time delay, \Delta \tau, constant over frequency, instead of by applying a progressive phase shift, constant over frequency. Usage of true-time-delay (TTD) phase shifters avoids beam squinting with frequency. The scanning angle, \theta, is expressed as a function of the phase shift progression, \beta, which is a function of the frequency and the progressive time delay, \Delta \tau, which is invariant with frequency:

Beamforming

beam formingbeamformerAntenna beamforming
Beam forming: The beam is formed in the digital (digital beamforming (DBF)), intermediate frequency (IF), optical, or radio frequency (RF) domain.

Antenna (radio)

antennaantennasradio antenna
This is done electronically, with a phased array antenna, or mechanically by rotating a physical antenna.