Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiationradiation treatmentIMRTintensity modulated radiation therapyirradiationintensity-modulated radiotherapyradiation oncologistradiation treatments
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.wikipedia
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Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Radiation therapy is synergistic with chemotherapy, and has been used before, during, and after chemotherapy in susceptible cancers.
Systemic therapy is often used in conjunction with other modalities that constitute local therapy (i.e. treatments whose efficacy is confined to the anatomic area where they are applied) for cancer such as radiation therapy, surgery or hyperthermia therapy.

Oncology

oncologistmedical oncologyoncological
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferences where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient.

Brachytherapy

implant radiationradiation seederbrachytheraputic
Brachytherapy, in which a radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast, prostate and other organs.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

Total body irradiation

total-body irradiationwhole body radiationwhole body
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant.
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

bone marrow transplantbone marrow transplantationstem cell transplant
Total body irradiation (TBI) is a radiation therapy technique used to prepare the body to receive a bone marrow transplant.
In these cases, the recipient's immune system is usually destroyed with radiation or chemotherapy before the transplantation.

Linear particle accelerator

linear acceleratorlinaclinear accelerators
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Linacs have many applications: they generate X-rays and high energy electrons for medicinal purposes in radiation therapy, serve as particle injectors for higher-energy accelerators, and are used directly to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles (electrons and positrons) for particle physics.

Melanoma

malignant melanomametastatic melanomamelanomas
Renal cell cancer and melanoma are generally considered to be radioresistant but radiation therapy is still a palliative option for many patients with metastatic melanoma.
For those in whom melanoma has spread, immunotherapy, biologic therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy may improve survival.

Radiobiology

radiation biologyradiobiologistradiobiological
Due to complex radiobiology, very large tumors respond less well to radiation than smaller tumors or microscopic disease.
Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and thyrotoxicosis.

Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemic
These include leukemias, most lymphomas and germ cell tumors.
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed.

Lymphoma

lymphomaslymphatic cancerlymphosarcoma
These include leukemias, most lymphomas and germ cell tumors.
Treatment may involve one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and surgery.

Absorbed dose

dosedose rateabsorbed radiation dose
To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding, healthy tissue.
When ionizing radiation is used to treat cancer, the doctor will usually prescribe the radiotherapy treatment in units of gray.

Radioactive source

Alpha sourceradioactive substancessources
Brachytherapy, in which a radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast, prostate and other organs.
As an irradiation source they are used in medicine for radiation therapy and in industry for such as industrial radiography, food irradiation, sterilization, vermin disinfestation, and irradiation crosslinking of PVC.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.
In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy.

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.
Other treatments may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.

Pigmented villonodular synovitis

PVNS (Pigmented villonodular synovitis)
Radiation therapy has several applications in non-malignant conditions, such as the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, severe thyroid eye disease, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar growth, vascular restenosis, and heterotopic ossification.
If the pain remains then radiation therapy or chemotherapy may help.

Skin cancer

non-melanoma skin cancerskinskin neoplasm
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.
Treatment is generally by surgical removal but may less commonly involve radiation therapy or topical medications such as fluorouracil.

Adjuvant therapy

adjuvantadjuvant chemotherapyadjunct
It may also be used as part of adjuvant therapy, to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery to remove a primary malignant tumor (for example, early stages of breast cancer).
For example, radiotherapy or systemic therapy is commonly given as adjuvant treatment after surgery for breast cancer.

Cervical cancer

cervicalcervical carcinomacervix
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.
Treatment may consist of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
It is also common to combine radiation therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy or some mixture of the four.
Postoperative therapy may include adjuvant treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or administration of medication such as anti-rejection medication for transplants.

Ionizing radiation

ionising radiationradiationnuclear radiation
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
In general, ionizing radiation is harmful and potentially lethal to living beings but some types have medical applications in radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer and thyrotoxicosis.

Xerostomia

dry mouthdryness of the mouthhyposalivation
Dehydration, radiotherapy involving the salivary glands, chemotherapy and several diseases can cause reduced salivation (hyposalivation), or a change in saliva consistency and hence a complaint of xerostomia.

Radiation-induced cognitive decline

cognitive declineRadiation induced cognitive decline
Radiation-induced cognitive decline describes the possible correlation between radiation therapy and mild cognitive impairment.

Anal cancer

analanusanus neoplasms
For example: non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.
Standard treatment may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Gray (unit)

grayGygrays
The amount of radiation used in photon radiation therapy is measured in grays (Gy), and varies depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated.
It is used as a unit of the radiation quantity absorbed dose that measures the energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a unit mass of matter being irradiated, and is used for measuring the delivered dose of ionising radiation in applications such as radiotherapy, food irradiation and radiation sterilization and predicting likely acute effects, such as acute radiation syndrome in radiological protection.

Neoadjuvant therapy

neoadjuvantneoadjuvant chemotherapyChemotherapy before surgery
The precise treatment intent (curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant therapeutic, or palliative) will depend on the tumor type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient.
One example is neoadjuvant hormone therapy prior to radical radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate.