Radicalism (historical)

radicalRadicalismradicalsradical liberalismRadical movementpolitical radicalismradical liberalRadical Republicansradical traditionReform Movement
The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.wikipedia
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Radicals (UK)

RadicalRadicalsEnglish Radical
The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.
The Radicals were a loose parliamentary political grouping in Great Britain and Ireland in the early to mid-19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party.

Radical Party (France)

Radical PartyPRRadical
By the 1890s the French Radicals were not organised under a single nationwide structure, but had become a significant political force in parliament; in 1901 they consolidated their efforts by forming the country's first major extra-parliamentary political party, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party, which became the most important party of government during the second half (1899 to 1940) of the Third Republic.
Coming from the Radical Republican tradition, the Radical Party upheld the principles of private property, social justice and secularism.

Liberalism and radicalism in Italy

liberalItalybelow
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
Liberalism and radicalism have played a role in the political history of Italy since the country's unification, started in 1861 and largely completed in 1871, and currently influence several leading political parties.

Liberalism and radicalism in Denmark

liberalDenmarkliberalism
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Denmark. It is limited to liberal and radical egalitarian parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in the parliament.

Society of United Irishmen

United IrishmenUnited IrishmanUnited Irish
Victorian era Britain possessed both trends: in England the Radicals were simply the left-wing of the Liberal coalition, though often rebelled when the coalition's socially-conservative Whigs resisted democratic reforms; whereas in Ireland Radicals lost faith in the ability of parliamentary graducalism to deliver democratic reform and, breaking away from the main body of gradualist liberal parties, pursued a radical-democratic parliamentary republic through separatist insurrection.
The Society of United Irishmen, founded as a Radical or liberal political organisation in 18th-century Ireland, initially sought Parliamentary reform.

Liberalism and radicalism in Bulgaria

liberalBulgariaLiberal Party
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Bulgaria. It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.

Radical Whigs

RadicalWhigWhigs
Victorian era Britain possessed both trends: in England the Radicals were simply the left-wing of the Liberal coalition, though often rebelled when the coalition's socially-conservative Whigs resisted democratic reforms; whereas in Ireland Radicals lost faith in the ability of parliamentary graducalism to deliver democratic reform and, breaking away from the main body of gradualist liberal parties, pursued a radical-democratic parliamentary republic through separatist insurrection.
The Radical Whigs were a group of British political commentators associated with the British Whig faction who were at the forefront of the Radical movement.

Radical Civic Union

UCRRadicalRadicals
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
Founded in 1891 by radical liberals, it is the oldest political party active in Argentina after the Liberal Party of Corrientes.

Liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland

Swiss Liberalliberalradical
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland. It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.

Social democracy

social democraticsocial-democraticsocial democrat
As social-democracy emerged as a distinct political force in its own right, the differences that once existed between left-wing radicalism and conservative-liberalism diminished, and between 1940 and 1973 Radicalism became defunct in most of its European heartlands, its role and philosophy taken on by social-democratic and conservative-liberal parties.
The Commune, in part due to its sizable number neo-Proudhonians and neo-Jacobins in the Central Committee, declared that the Commune was not opposed to private property, but rather hoped to create the widest distribution of it. The political composition of the Commune included twenty-five neo-Jacobins, fifteen to twenty neo-Proudhonians and protosyndicalists, nine or ten Blanquists, a variety of radical republicans and a few Internationalists influenced by Marx.

Liberalism and radicalism in Chile

Chile
In other countries, Radicalism and left-wing liberalism had enough electoral support, or a favourable electoral system or coalition partners, to maintain distinct Radical parties: Switzerland and Germany (Freisinn), Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands, but also Argentina (Radical Civic Union), Chile and Paraguay.
This article gives an overview of liberal and radical parties in Chile. It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.

Philosophical Radicals

philosophicphilosophic radicalismPhilosophic Radicals
More respectable "philosophical radicals" followed the utilitarian philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and strongly supported parliamentary reform, but were generally hostile to the arguments and tactics of the "popular radicals".
The Philosophical Radicals were a philosophically-minded group of English political radicals in the nineteenth century inspired by Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) and James Mill (1773–1836).

Jacobin

JacobinsJacobin Clubclub des Jacobins
According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the first use of the word "Radical" in a political sense is generally ascribed to the English parliamentarian Charles James Fox, leader of the left-wing of the Whig party who dissented from the party's conservative-liberalism and looked favourably upon the radical reforms being undertaken by French republicans, such as universal male suffrage.
In Britain, where the term Jacobin has been linked primarily to the Mountain, it is sometimes used as a pejorative for radical left-wing revolutionary politics, especially when it exhibits dogmatism and violent repression.

Progressivism

progressiveprogressivesprogressive movement
During the 19th century in the United Kingdom, continental Europe and Latin America, the term "Radical" came to denote a progressive liberal ideology inspired by the French Revolution.
In France, the space between social revolution and the socially-conservative laissez-faire centre-right was filled with the emergence of Radicalism, which thought that social progress required humanism, republicanism and anticlericalism, and which was until the mid twentieth-century the dominant influence on the centre left in many French- and Romance-speaking countries.

France in the long nineteenth century

France19th century France19th century
In nineteenth-century France, Radicalism had emerged as a minor political force by the 1840s, as the extreme-left of the day (in contrast to the socially-conservative liberalism of the Moderate Republicans and Orléanists monarchists, and the anti-parliamentarianism of the Legitimist monarchists and Bonapartist republicans).
The regime acknowledged early on that radicalism and republicanism threatened it, undermining its laissez-faire policies.

John Wilkes

WilkesMr. Wilkesthe disputed election of John Wilkes
The "Middlesex radicals" were led by the politician John Wilkes, an opponent of war with the colonies who started his weekly publication The North Briton in 1764 and within two years had been charged with seditious libel and expelled from the House of Commons.
John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was a British radical, journalist, and politician.

Christopher Wyvill

Christopher Wyvill’s Association movement
Middlesex and Westminster were among the few parliamentary constituencies with a large and socially diverse electorate including many artisans as well as the middle class and aristocracy and along with the county association of Yorkshire led by the Reverend Christopher Wyvill were at the forefront of reform activity.
Christopher Wyvill (1740–1822) was an English cleric and landowner, a political reformer who inspired the formation of the Yorkshire Association movement in 1779.

The North Briton

North BritonIssue 45
The "Middlesex radicals" were led by the politician John Wilkes, an opponent of war with the colonies who started his weekly publication The North Briton in 1764 and within two years had been charged with seditious libel and expelled from the House of Commons.
The North Briton was a radical newspaper published in 18th century London.

Moderate Republicans (France)

Moderate RepublicanModerate RepublicansRepublican
In nineteenth-century France, Radicalism had emerged as a minor political force by the 1840s, as the extreme-left of the day (in contrast to the socially-conservative liberalism of the Moderate Republicans and Orléanists monarchists, and the anti-parliamentarianism of the Legitimist monarchists and Bonapartist republicans).
They became the official opposition group with the Léon Gambetta's Belleville Agenda of 1869 based on radical, progressive, laicist and reformist goals.

Jeremy Bentham

BenthamBenthamiteBentham, Jeremy
More respectable "philosophical radicals" followed the utilitarian philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and strongly supported parliamentary reform, but were generally hostile to the arguments and tactics of the "popular radicals".
In 1823, he co-founded The Westminster Review with James Mill as a journal for the "Philosophical Radicals"—a group of younger disciples through whom Bentham exerted considerable influence in British public life.

Thomas Spence

Spencean PhilanthropistsSociety of Spencean PhilanthropistsSpencean radicalism
Popular Radicals were quick to go further than Paine, with Newcastle schoolmaster Thomas Spence demanding land nationalisation to redistribute wealth in a penny periodical he called Pig's Meat in a reference to Edmund Burke's phrase "swinish multitude".
Thomas Spence (21 June Old Style/ 2 July New Style, 1750 – 8 September 1814) was an English Radical and advocate of the common ownership of land.

London Corresponding Society

Corresponding societies
Radical organisations sprang up, such as the London Corresponding Society of artisans formed in January 1792 under the leadership of the shoemaker Thomas Hardy to call for the vote.
The London Corresponding Society (LCS) was a British Radical organisation, with a membership consisting primarily of artisans, tradesmen, and shopkeepers.

Thomas Hardy (political reformer)

Thomas HardyHardy
Radical organisations sprang up, such as the London Corresponding Society of artisans formed in January 1792 under the leadership of the shoemaker Thomas Hardy to call for the vote.
Thomas Hardy (3 March 1752 – 11 October 1832) was an early Radical, and the founder, first Secretary, and Treasurer of the London Corresponding Society.

Henry Hunt (politician)

Henry HuntHenry "Orator" HuntHunt
The publications of William Cobbett were influential and at political meetings speakers like Henry Hunt complained that only three men in a hundred had the vote.
Henry "Orator" Hunt (6 November 1773 – 15 February 1835) was a British radical speaker and agitator remembered as a pioneer of working-class radicalism and an important influence on the later Chartist movement.

Hampden Clubs

Pentrich Hampden Club
In 1812, Major John Cartwright formed the first Hampden Club, named after the English Civil War Parliamentary leader John Hampden, aiming to bring together middle class moderates and lower class radicals.
The Hampden Clubs were political campaigning and debating societies formed in England in the early 19th century as part of the Radical Movement.