Type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states.

- Raion

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Capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach and the now subterranean Niamiha rivers.

Trajeckaje pradmiescie
Independence Square in the centre of Minsk.
The Saviour Church, built under the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1577, is part of an archaeological preservation in Zaslavl, 23 km northwest of Minsk.
Minsk in 1772
Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (Russian Orthodox).
Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene (built in 1847)
The Jesuit Collegium in 1912.
Belarusian national flag over the building of the People's Secretariat of the Belarusian People's Republic
Meeting in the Kurapaty woods, 1989, where between 1937 and 1941 from 30,000 to 250,000 Belarusian intelligentsia members were murdered by the NKVD during the Great Purge
Children during the German bombing of Minsk on 24 June 1941.
War memorial in Victory Square, Minsk.
German troops marching through Minsk.
Railway Station Square, an example of Stalinist Minsk architecture.
Janka Kupala National Theatre
Independence Avenue (Initial part of avenue candidates for inclusion in World Heritage Site).
Starascinskaja Slabada Squareon the Svislač River.
Panorama to the center of Minsk.
The Svislač River in autumn.
Apartment buildings in Minsk.
Jewish Holocaust memorial "The Pit" in Minsk.
Chinese signage, Minsk railway station (2018).
New synagogue in Minsk
Police during the 2020–21 Belarusian protests.
2020–21 Belarusian protests — Minsk, 30 August 2020.
Power plant.
House of Representatives of Belarus
Victory Square
The city hall (rebuilt in 2003).
Outside view of the Dinamo National Olympic Stadium, 2019.
Dinamo National Olympic Stadium (after reconstruction).
Minsk Arena
Electrobus AKSM E321 in Minsk.
Vakzalnaja station in the Minsk Metro.
Minsk Central Bus Station Nowadays
Stadler Astra train, Minsk train station.
Bike path in Minsk.
Church of St. Mary Magdalene (Russian Orthodox).
Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Roman Catholic).
Church of Holy Trinity (Saint Rochus) (Roman Catholic).
Church of All Saints (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St.Yevfrosinya of Polotsk (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St. Elisabeth Convent (Russian Orthodox)
The Red Church (Roman Catholic).
Church of St.Joseph (formerly Uniate, used as an archive).
Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic).
Minsk Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Russian Orthodox).
Minsk State Linguistic University.
Faculty of International Relations, Belarusian State University.
Belarus State University rector's office.
Minsk satellite photo, 2019

As the capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblasć) and Minsk District (rajon).


Third most populous city and municipality in Ukraine and a major seaport and transport hub located in the south-west of the country, on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

The remains of an ancient Greek settlement (under the glass roof) on Primorsky Boulevard in Odessa
A map of Odessa in 1794
A map of Odessa in 1814
Ivan Martos's statue of the Duc de Richelieu in Odessa
In the mid-19th century Odessa became a resort town famed for its popularity among the Russian upper classes. This popularity prompted a new age of investment in the building of hotels and leisure projects.
By the early 1900s Odessa had become a large, thriving city, complete with European architecture and electrified urban transport.
The 142-metre-long Potemkin Stairs (constructed 1837–1841), which were famously featured in the 1925 film Battleship Potemkin
Bolshevik troops entering Odessa
A Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941
Ships at anchor in Odessa – the USSR's largest port, 1960
The city is currently undergoing a phase of widespread urban restoration: Russov House in 2020
The Vorontsov Lighthouse in the Gulf of Odessa. The city is located on the Black Sea.
Historic Ethnic and National composition of Odessa
Odessa City Hall, the seat of the city's municipal authorities
An old map of Odessa's city centre. North is to the left.
The Italian baroque facade of the Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater.
The centre of Odessa, with its statue of Catherine the Great, is one of the city's central landmarks.
A park at Primorskiy prospekt in Odessa
The Odessa National Scientific Library is a major research library, and centre for study, in southern Ukraine.
The Odessa Archaeological Museum was designed in the Neoclassical style just like many other landmarks of the city.
The Pushkin Monument, Odessa, 1889, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC
The main hall of the Odessa Philharmonic Society's theatre.
The School of Stolyarsky, founded in 1933, has long been recognised as a centre of musical excellence.
An aerial image of Beach Chayka
Beaches of Arcadia
Ukrainian Navy Honour Guards during the Navy Day celebrations in Odessa in 2016.
Hotel Grand Moscow in Odessa
Arkadia Beach in Odessa
Odessa has long been an important Black Sea port.
The M05 Highway links Odessa with the nation's capital, Kyiv. Odessa junction.
Odessa Holovna is one of Ukraine's largest railway terminals. Every day trains depart to many national and international destinations.
An Odessa tram on Sofievska Street.
The Odessa Palace of Sports
Chornomorets Stadium renovated in preparation to the Euro 2012
Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916
Revolutionary soldiers - 1916
Revolutionary soldiers, Odessa - 1916
Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “Hero-City Odessa 1941-1945”
Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa"
Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa"; inscription reads “For our Soviet homeland”
Certificate "For taking part in the heroic defense of Odessa" Logvinov Petr Leontievich was awarded the Medal for the Defense of Odessa.
The city's Preobrazhensky Park surrounds its cathedral
The Alexander Column in Schevchenko Park
The Londonskaya Hotel, on Odessa's magnificent Primorsky Bulvar, is one of the city's landmark buildings
The main building of the Odessa National Medical University
Odessa's port is Ukraine's busiest. The harbour remains accessible all year round and serves as a vital import/export channel for the Ukrainian economy.
The Passage galleries, one of the city's landmarks.
Mikhail Zhvanetsky, 2016
Share of the Belgian company "Tramways d'Odessa", issued 24 august 1881

In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to the Odessa City council, and with limited responsibilities.

Krasnodar Krai

Federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.

Krasnodar Krai
Krai Administration building in Krasnodar
A hilly landscape near Goryachy Klyuch
Mount Tsakhvoa is the highest peak in Krasnodar Krai
Pshadskiye Waterfalls
Lake Abrau
On a beach in Sochi
Apsheronsky District
Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway
EMU train Lastotschka, Sochi
The port of Novorossiysk

Krasnodar Krai is administratively divided into thirty-eight districts (raions) and fifteen cities of district equivalence.


The Buryats (Буриад) are a Mongolian people numbering at 516,476, comprising one of the two largest indigenous groups in Siberia, the other being the Yakuts.

A Buryat wrestling match during the Altargana Festival
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1929.
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1989
Map of autonomous Buryat territories (until 2008): Republic of Buryatia and autonomous okrugs of Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia
Traditional wooden hut of Buryatia
Traditional Buryat dress
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal
Ivolginsky Datsan is a monastery complex consisting of seven Buddhist temples
Sagaalgan (from the Buryat language, meaning “White Month") is a Buddhist festival marking the beginning of the New Year and the coming of spring.
Buuz, a steamed meat dumpling, is probably the most iconic dish of Buryat cuisine
Buryat women
Mongol states in the 14th to 17th centuries.

In 1937, in an effort to disperse Buryats, Stalin's government separated a number of counties (raions) from the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and formed Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug; at the same time, some raions with Buryat populations were left out.


Town in the Grodno Region of Belarus.

Church of Boris and Gleb drawing by Napoleon Orda.
Ruins of the Novogrudok Castle, destroyed in the 18th century, drawing by Napoleon Orda.
City's landscapes in 19th century.
Novogrudok's coat of arms in the 16th century
19th century view of Adam Mickiewicz's house
Castle hill by Kanuty Rusiecki, 1846
Cavalry squadron of the 10th Lithuanian Uhlan regiment in Novogrudok 1919.
Novogrudok in interwar Poland
Memorial stone to the Martyrs of Nowogródek
Commander of the Novogrudok partisan district of Home Army, Lieutenant Colonel Maciej Kalenkiewicz
House of Adam Mickiewicz in Novogrudok
Panoramic view of Novogrudok, 2018
Panorama. Józef Peszka, about 1800.
Castle mountain. A. Ales, 1835.
Navahrudak town hall, plan in the 19th century.
Castle Church before demolition by the tsarist authorities.
Church of Boris and Gleb, Chair of the Lithuanian Orthodox Archdiocese Vincent Dmachoŭski, 1856.<ref>Морозова С. {{cite web|url = http://mestechki.info/conference/4maroz.htm|title = Наваградак — царкоўная сталіца Вялікага Княства Літоўскага (ХIV — XV стст.)|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20160308141657/http://mestechki.info/conference/4maroz.htm|archive-date = 2016-03-08 }} // Гарады Беларусі ў кантэксце палітыкі, эканомікі, культуры: зборнік навук. артыкулаў / Гродз.дзярж. ун-т; рэдкалегія: І. П. Крэнь, І. В. Соркіна (адк. рэдактары) і інш. — Гродна: ГрДУ, 2007.</ref>
Transfiguration Church and Navahrudak Castle. Vincent Dmachoŭski, 1856.
Castle. Vincent Dmachoŭski, 1856.
The corner of the Market square and the streets of Slonim. Church of the Dominicans.
The House Of Adam Mickiewicz
Eldership (the former Palace of the Radziwills)
The office of the Governor
The house of the Governor
Transfiguration Church
Market square
Shopping malls
Former Market square 1917
Train station
Church in honor of the Archangel Michael
Former Dominican monastery
District court
A former power station building converted into a theater and cinema
Navahrudak Mosque
Market square
Dominican women's monastery, 1929
The Church of the Dominicans during the destruction by the tsarist authorities
The Radziwiłł Palace. Snapshot Jan Bułhak, 1926
Great synagogue. Snapshot Jan Bułhak, circa 1930
Ruins of a Small gate, a castle
Market square on the side of the Radziwill Palace
Ruins of the castle
Transfiguration Church
House of Adam Mickiewicz
Church of Saint Michael Archangel
Trade rows
Pre-war Voivodeship Office

On 8 July 1954, following the disestablishment of the Baranavichy Voblast, the raion, along with Novogrudok, became part of the Hrodna Voblast, where it still is, now in Belarus.

Administrative divisions of the Tuva Republic

Regulated by the Law #627 VKh-2, adopted on March 19, 2008.

According to the law, the units of the administrative division mirror the municipal divisions of the republic and include the municipal districts, urban okrugs, urban settlements, and rural settlements.

Cherkasy Oblast

Oblast (province) of central Ukraine located along the Dnieper River.

The Ros River near Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi.
Map of Cherkasy Oblast.
A church in Subotiv near Chyhyryn, the birthplace of Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
The Sviato-Uspenskyi Cathedral in Zolotonosha.

The northernmost point of the oblast is located is near the village of Kononivka in Zolotonosha Raion (district), the southernmost point near the village of Kolodyste in Zvenyhorodka Raion, the westernmost point near the village of Korytnya in Uman Raion, and the easternmost point near the village of Stetsivka in Cherkasy Raion.


Any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, as well as the Netherlands.

World administrative levels

In some post-Soviet states, there are cities that are divided into municipal raioni similarly to how some French cities are divided into municipal arrondissements (see e.g. Raions of cities in Ukraine, Municipal divisions of Russia, Administrative divisions of Minsk).

Magyar Autonomous Region

The Magyar Autonomous Region (1952–1960) (Romanian: Regiunea Autonomă Maghiară, Hungarian: Magyar Autonóm Tartomány) and Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region (1960–1968) were autonomous regions in the Romanian People's Republic (later the Socialist Republic of Romania).

Magyar Autonomous Region (1952&ndash;1960: yellow and brown)
Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region (1960&ndash;1968: yellow and green).
The Magyar Autonomous Region in Romania, in 1952–1960.
The regions of People's Republic of Romania between 1960–1968.
Nicolae Ceaușescu and the Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region delegation at the IXth Congress of the Romanian Communist Party in July 1965.

Two years later, in 1952, under Soviet pressure, the number of regions was reduced and by comprising ten raions from the former Mureș Region and from the Stalin Region (both of them created in 1950), of the territory inhabited by a compact population of Székely Hungarians, a new region called the Magyar Autonomous Region was created.

Puppet state

State that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders.

Map of the Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–40), a short-lived puppet state of the Soviet Union. Green indicates the area that the Soviet Union planned to cede to the Finnish Democratic Republic, and red the areas ceded by Democratic Finland to the Soviet Union.
First French Empire and French satellite states in 1812
Map of the British Indian Empire. The princely states are in yellow.
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence
Wang Jingwei receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
German-occupied Europe at the height of the Axis conquests in 1942
Abkhazian President Alexander Ankvab with Transnistrian President Yevgeny Shevchuk in 2013. Both Abkhazia and Transnistria have been described as puppet states of Russia.
Northern Cyprus in 2009

Lokot Republic, Russia (1941–1943) – The Lokot Republic under Konstantin Voskoboinik and Bronislaw Kaminski was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi-occupied Russia under an all-Russian administration. The republic covered the area of several raions of Oryol and Kursk Oblasts. It was directly associated with the Kaminski Brigade and the Russian Liberation Army (Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya or RONA).