Ramsay MacDonald

MacDonaldJames Ramsay MacDonaldRt Hon. Ramsay MacDonaldRamsayJ. Ramsay MacDonaldJames R. MacDonaldMacDonald GovernmentMr MacDonaldPrime Minister James Ramsay MacDonaldPrime Minister MacDonald
James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, firstly for nine months in 1924 and then again between 1929 and 1935.wikipedia
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Second MacDonald ministry

Second Labour GovernmentMacDonald IILabour Government
He was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
The second MacDonald ministry was formed by Ramsay MacDonald on his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V on 5 June 1929.

First MacDonald ministry

first Labour governmentLabour governmentMacDonald I
He was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
The Labour Party, under Ramsay MacDonald, had failed to win the general election of December 1923, with 191 seats, although the combined Opposition tally exceeded that of the Conservative government creating a hung parliament.

National Government (1931–1935)

National GovernmentNational II2nd National Min.
He headed a National Government from 1931 to 1935, dominated by the Conservative Party and supported by only a few Labour members.
The National Government of 1931–1935 was formed by Ramsay MacDonald following his reappointment as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by King George V after the general election in October 1931.

1931 United Kingdom general election

19311931 general election1931 election
He formed the National Government to carry out spending cuts to defend the gold standard; the gold standard had to be abandoned after the Invergordon Mutiny and he called a general election in 1931 seeking a "doctor's mandate" to fix the economy.
After battling with the Great Depression for two years, Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government had been faced with a sudden budget crisis in August 1931.

Lord President of the Council

Lord PresidentThe Lord President of the CouncilShadow Lord President of the Council
His health deteriorated and he stood down as Prime Minister in 1935 and remained as Lord President of the Council until retiring in 1937.
During times of National or Coalition Government the office of Lord President has sometimes been held by the leader of a minority party (e.g. Baldwin 1931-1935, MacDonald 1935-1937, Attlee 1943-1945, Clegg 2010-2015).

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
He headed a National Government from 1931 to 1935, dominated by the Conservative Party and supported by only a few Labour members.
In 1922, Bonar Law and Stanley Baldwin led the break-up of the coalition and the Conservatives governed until 1923, when a minority Labour government led by Ramsay MacDonald came to power.

Leader of the Labour Party (UK)

Leader of the Labour PartyLeaderLabour leader
He was chairman of the Labour MPs before 1914 and, after an eclipse in his career caused by his opposition to the First World War he was Leader of the Labour Party from 1922.
In 1924, Ramsay MacDonald became the first ever Labour Prime Minister, leading a minority administration which lasted nine months.

Arthur Henderson

HendersonRt Hon. Arthur HendersonThe Right Honourable '''Arthur Henderson
MacDonald, along with Keir Hardie and Arthur Henderson, was one of the three principal founders of the Labour Party.
In 1914 the First World War broke out and Ramsay MacDonald resigned from the Leadership of the Labour Party in protest.

Independent Labour Party

ILPIndependent LabourIndependent Labour Party (ILP)
In 1893, Keir Hardie had formed the Independent Labour Party (ILP) which had established itself as a mass movement.
The party was positioned to the left of Ramsay MacDonald’s Labour Representation Committee, founded in 1900 and soon renamed the Labour Party, to which it was affiliated from 1906 to 1932.

National Liberal Club

National Liberalthe National Liberal ClubThe Wee Free Liberals
Many doors now opened to MacDonald: he had access to the National Liberal Club as well as the editorial offices of Liberal and Radical newspapers; he made himself known to various London Radical clubs among Radical and labour politicians.
During the hung parliament of 1923–24, it was at the club that Asquith – as Leader of the reunited Liberal Party – announced on 6 December 1923 that the Liberals would support Ramsay MacDonald in forming Britain's first ever Labour government.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
He was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31. MacDonald, along with Keir Hardie and Arthur Henderson, was one of the three principal founders of the Labour Party.
It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and from 1929 to 1931.

Invergordon Mutiny

in a non-violent "mutinyInvergordon Naval Mutinymutineer
He formed the National Government to carry out spending cuts to defend the gold standard; the gold standard had to be abandoned after the Invergordon Mutiny and he called a general election in 1931 seeking a "doctor's mandate" to fix the economy.
On top of this, many Labour Party supporters shared the sense of betrayal felt in the labour movement at Ramsay MacDonald's split with the Labour Party and his formation of a new government with the Conservatives.

1918 United Kingdom general election

1918 general election19181918 UK general election
As the war dragged on, his reputation recovered but he still lost his seat in the 1918 "Coupon Election", which saw the Liberal David Lloyd George's coalition government win a large majority.
However, they only slightly increased their number of seats, and lost some of their earlier leaders like Ramsay MacDonald and Arthur Henderson.

1922 United Kingdom general election

19221922 general election1922 election
At the 1922 election, Labour replaced the Liberals as the main opposition party to the Conservative government of Stanley Baldwin, making MacDonald Leader of the Opposition.
Neither of the leaders of the two main parties would get to enjoy their success in the election for very long; within less than a month of the election, Clynes was defeated in a leadership challenge by former Labour leader Ramsay MacDonald, while Law would only last a little over seven months as Prime Minister before being forced to step down due to a terminal illness, resulting in Stanley Baldwin succeeding him as both party leader and Prime Minister.

Fabian Society

FabianFabian socialistFabians
Elsewhere as a member of the Fabian Society for some time, MacDonald toured and lectured on its behalf at the London School of Economics and elsewhere.
Immediately upon its inception, the Fabian Society began attracting many prominent contemporary figures drawn to its socialist cause, including George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Charles Marson, Sydney Olivier, Oliver Lodge, Ramsay MacDonald and Emmeline Pankhurst.

Stanley Baldwin

BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleyPrime Minister
At the 1922 election, Labour replaced the Liberals as the main opposition party to the Conservative government of Stanley Baldwin, making MacDonald Leader of the Opposition.
He called an election on the issue of tariffs and lost the Conservatives' parliamentary majority, after which Ramsay MacDonald formed a minority Labour government.

1923 United Kingdom general election

19231923 general election1923 election
At the 1923 election, the Conservatives had lost their majority, and when they lost a vote of confidence in the House in January 1924 King George V called on MacDonald to form a minority Labour government, with the tacit support of the Liberals under Asquith from the corner benches.
The Conservatives, led by Stanley Baldwin, won the most seats, but Labour, led by Ramsay MacDonald, and H. H. Asquith's reunited Liberal Party gained enough seats to produce a hung parliament.

Keir Hardie

KeirKeir Hardie MP(James) Keir Hardie
MacDonald, along with Keir Hardie and Arthur Henderson, was one of the three principal founders of the Labour Party. In 1893, Keir Hardie had formed the Independent Labour Party (ILP) which had established itself as a mass movement.
It was engineered by Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone: the Liberals would not stand against Labour in thirty constituencies in the next election, in order to avoid splitting the anti-Conservative vote.

St Stephen's Church, Bristol

St Stephen's ChurchBristol — St Stephen's PriorySt Stephen
In 1885, he left to take up a position as an assistant to Mordaunt Crofton, a clergyman in Bristol who was attempting to establish a Boys' and Young Men's Guild at St Stephen's Church.
In 1885, a young man named Ramsay MacDonald took up a position as an assistant to Mordaunt Crofton, a Bristol clergyman who was attempting to establish a Boys' and Young Men's Guild at St Stephen's Church.

Gladstone–MacDonald pact

an electoral pactan agreement
As Party Secretary, MacDonald negotiated an agreement with the leading Liberal politician Herbert Gladstone (son of the late Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone), which allowed Labour to contest a number of working class seats without Liberal opposition, thus giving Labour its first breakthrough into the House of Commons.
The Gladstone–MacDonald pact of 1903 was a secret informal electoral agreement negotiated by Herbert Gladstone, Liberal Party Chief Whip, and Ramsay MacDonald, Secretary of the Labour Representation Committee (LRC).

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
As Party Secretary, MacDonald negotiated an agreement with the leading Liberal politician Herbert Gladstone (son of the late Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone), which allowed Labour to contest a number of working class seats without Liberal opposition, thus giving Labour its first breakthrough into the House of Commons. Lough was elected as the Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for West Islington, in 1892.
Ramsay MacDonald was forced into a snap election in 1924 and although his government was defeated he achieved his objective of virtually wiping the Liberals out as many more radical voters now moved to Labour whilst moderate middle-class Liberal voters concerned about socialism moved to the Conservatives.

1922 Labour Party (UK) leadership election

21 November 19221922 leadership electionElected
By now, the party was reunited and MacDonald was re-elected as Leader.
The election took place when incumbent Chairman John Clynes was challenged by former leader Ramsay MacDonald.

Parliamentary Labour Party

PLPChairman of the Parliamentary Labour PartyMPs, AMs & MEPs
In that same year, MacDonald was elected MP for Leicester along with 28 others, and became one of the leaders of the Parliamentary Labour Party.
Ramsay MacDonald (1911–14)

Henry Campbell-Bannerman

Sir Henry Campbell-BannermanCampbell-BannermanC.-Bannerman
These Labour MPs undoubtedly owed their election to the 'Progressive Alliance' between the Liberals and Labour, a minor party supporting the Liberal governments of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith.
In 1903, the Liberal Party's Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone negotiated a pact with Ramsay MacDonald of the Labour Representation Committee to withdraw Liberal candidates to help LRC candidates in certain seats, in return for LRC withdrawal in other seats to help Liberal candidates.

Aberavon (UK Parliament constituency)

AberavonAberavon CCAberavon constituency
In 1922, MacDonald was returned to the House as MP for Aberavon in Wales, with a vote of 14,318 against 11,111 and 5,328 for his main opponents.
Ramsay MacDonald, who became Labour's first Prime Minister in 1924, held the seat from 1922 to 1929.