Ranchos of California

Pacheco Adobe, built 1835 by Salvio Pacheco on Rancho Monte del Diablo.
The Guajome Adobe, built 1852–53 as the seat of Rancho Guajome.
Manuel Domínguez built Domínguez Adobe on Rancho San Pedro in 1826.
The Flores Adobe was built 1838-45 by Governor José María Flores on Rancho San Pascual.
The Petaluma Adobe, built by General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo in 1836 on Rancho Petaluma.
Diseño of Rancho Buena Ventura.
The Rancho Los Méganos mansion was built in 1856 by John Marsh.
The Pico Adobe, built by Pío Pico in 1853 on Rancho Paso de Bartolo.
The Casa de Dana was built on Rancho Nipomo in 1839.
The Olivas Adobe was built on Rancho San Miguel in 1841.
Map of the Spanish and Mexican rancho grants in Los Angeles County.
Rancho Los Encinos is preserved as Los Encinos State Historic Park.

The Spanish and Mexican governments made many concessions and land grants in Alta California (now known as California) and Baja California from 1775 to 1846.

- Ranchos of California
Pacheco Adobe, built 1835 by Salvio Pacheco on Rancho Monte del Diablo.

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A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."

Spanish missions in California

Now the U.S. state of California.

Now the U.S. state of California.

A view of Mission San Juan Capistrano. At left is the façade of the first adobe church with its added espadaña; behind the campanario, or "bell wall" is the "Sacred Garden." The Mission has earned a reputation as the "Loveliest of the Franciscan Ruins."
The Missionaries as They Came and Went. Franciscans of the California missions donned gray habits, in contrast to the brown that is typically worn today.
Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, circa 1910. This mission is architecturally distinctive because of the strong Moorish lines exhibited.
A drawing of Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo prepared by Captain George Vancouver depicts the grounds as they appeared in November 1792. From A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World.
An illustration depicts the death of the Rev. Luís Jayme by angry natives at Mission San Diego de Alcalá, November 4, 1775. The independence uprising was the first of a dozen similar incidents that took place in Alta California during the Mission Period; however, most rebellions tended to be localized and short-lived due to the Spaniards' superior weaponry (native resistance more often took the form of non-cooperation (in forced labor), return to their homelands (desertion of forced relocation), and raids on mission livestock).
Georg von Langsdorff, an early visitor to California, sketched a group of Costeño dancers at Mission San José in 1806. "The hair of these people is very coarse, thick, and stands erect; in some it is powdered with down feathers," Langsdorff noted. "Their bodies are fantastically painted with charcoal dust, red clay, and chalk. The foremost dancer is ornamented all over with down feathers, which gives him a monkey-like appearance; the hindermost has had the whimsical idea of painting his body to imitate the uniform of a Spanish soldier, with his boots, stockings, breeches, and upper garments."
"Ya Viene El Alba" ("The Dawn Already Comes"), typical of the hymns sung at the missions.
A view of the Catalan forges at Mission San Juan Capistrano, the oldest existing facilities (circa 1790s) of their kind in the State of California. The sign at the lower right-hand corner proclaims the site as being "...part of Orange County's first industrial complex."
Natives utilize a primitive plow to prepare a field for planting near Mission San Diego de Alcalá.
Mission Santa Barbara's lavandería was constructed by Chumash neophytes around 1806.
The first recorded baptisms in Alta California were performed in "The Canyon of the Little Christians."
Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada violated ecclesiastical asylum at Mission San Diego de Alcalá on March 26, 1776 when he forcibly removed a 'neophyte' in direct defiance of the padres. Missionary Pedro Font later described the scene: "...Rivera entered the chapel with drawn sword...con la espada desnuda en la mano." Rivera y Moncada was subsequently excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church for his actions.
Pablo Tac, who lived at Mission San Luis Rey in the 1820s and 1830s, penned this drawing depicting two young men wearing skirts of twine and feathers with feather decorations on their heads, rattles in their hands, and (perhaps) painted decorations on their bodies.
Illuminated choir missals on display at Mission San Luis Rey de Francia in 1913.
Hugo Reid, an outspoken critic of the mission system and its effects on the native populations, at Rancho Santa Anita circa 1850.
The horse and mule trail known as El Camino Real as of 1821 and the locations of the 21 Franciscan missions in Alta California.
El Presidio Real de Santa Bárbara
Mission San Juan Bautista, located in San Juan Bautista.
The courtyard of Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, with California's oldest pepper tree (Schinus molle), planted in 1830, visible through the arch.
Misión San Juan de Capistrano by Henry Chapman Ford, 1880. The work depicts the rear of the "Great Stone Church" and part of the mission's campo santo.
Mission La Purísima Concepción, located northeast of Lompoc.
Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, located south of Soledad.
Mission San Antonio de Padua, located northwest of Jolon.
Mission Santa Barbara, located in Santa Barbara.
Mission San Buenaventura, located in Ventura.
Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, located south of Carmel.
Mission Santa Clara de Asís, located in Santa Clara.
Scale replica of Mission Santa Cruz chapel, located in Santa Cruz.
Mission San Diego de Alcalá, located in San Diego.
Mission San Fernando Rey de España, located in Mission Hills (Los Angeles).
Mission San Francisco de Asís, located in San Francisco.
Mission San Francisco Solano, located in Sonoma.
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, located in San Gabriel.
Mission Santa Inés, located in Solvang.
Mission San José, located in Fremont.
Mission San Juan Capistrano, located in San Juan Capistrano.
Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, located in San Luis Obispo.
Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, located in Oceanside.
Mission San Miguel Arcángel, located in San Miguel.
Mission San Rafael Arcángel, located in San Rafael.

This divided the mission lands into land grants, in effect legitimizing and completing the transfer of Indian congregation lands to military commanders and their most loyal men; these became many of the Ranchos of California.

Pacheco Adobe, built 1835 by Salvio Pacheco on Rancho Monte del Diablo.

List of ranchos of California

Pacheco Adobe, built 1835 by Salvio Pacheco on Rancho Monte del Diablo.

These California land grants were made by Spanish (1784–1821) and Mexican (1822–1846) authorities of Las Californias and Alta California to private individuals before California became part of the United States of America.

Gaspar de Portolá led the 1769 Portolá expedition and served as the first Governor of the Californias.

Californios

Term used to designate a Hispanic Californian, especially those descended from Spanish and Mexican settlers.

Term used to designate a Hispanic Californian, especially those descended from Spanish and Mexican settlers.

Gaspar de Portolá led the 1769 Portolá expedition and served as the first Governor of the Californias.
Juan Bautista de Anza led the 1775-76 Anza expedition.
Juan Bautista Alvarado briefly led a movement for the independence of Alta California from 1836 to 1837.
Noted Californio statesman Pío Pico served as the last Governor of Alta California under Mexican rule.
General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo reviewing his troops in Sonoma, 1846.
The raising of the Bear Flag and proclamation of the California Republic in Sonoma, following the Bear Flag Revolt on June 14, 1846.
The 1847 Battle of Santa Clara was one of the last battles of the conquest.
Signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga by Californio Andrés Pico and American John C. Frémont. The treaty ended the Mexican-American War in California.
Andrés Pico, shown in 1850 in traditional Californio vaquero attire, served as a California State Senator and Adjutant General of California.
The Red Lone Star Flag of California was a symbol of the Californio Revolt of 1836, led by Juan Bautista Alvarado.
Portrait of a Californio vaquero in traditional Californian clothing by James Alexander Walker.
Angustias de la Guerra played a crucial role in defending women's property rights during the drafting of the California Constitution.
Californio vaqueros in 1875.
José Andrés Sepúlveda was one of California's most famed vaqueros.

Later, the primary cultural focus of the Californio population became the Vaquero tradition practiced by the landed gentry, who received large land grants and created the Rancho system.

Ruin of the Indian quarters, Mission San Luis Rey

Mission Indians

Mission Indians are the indigenous peoples of California who lived in Southern California and were forcibly relocated from their traditional dwellings, villages, and homelands to live and work at 15 Franciscan missions in Southern California and the Asistencias and Estancias established between 1796 and 1823 in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Mission Indians are the indigenous peoples of California who lived in Southern California and were forcibly relocated from their traditional dwellings, villages, and homelands to live and work at 15 Franciscan missions in Southern California and the Asistencias and Estancias established between 1796 and 1823 in the Las Californias Province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Ruin of the Indian quarters, Mission San Luis Rey
Indian cemetery at Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Carmel, California
The territorial boundaries of the Southern California Indian tribes based on dialect, including the Cahuilla, Chemehuevi, Cupeño, Diegueño, Gabrieliño, Juaneño (highlighted), Luiseño and Mohave language groups.
Depiction of three "Indian Crones" from the Mission San Luis Rey de Francia, published in "American Indians: first families of the Southwest"
by John Frederick Huckel, in 1920

Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions.

St. Carlos, near Monterey, c. 1792

Mexican secularization act of 1833

Act passed by the Congress of the Union of the First Mexican Republic which secularized the Californian missions.

Act passed by the Congress of the Union of the First Mexican Republic which secularized the Californian missions.

St. Carlos, near Monterey, c. 1792
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The ruins of Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad circa 1900.
Mission Santa Clara de Asís
The ruins of Mission La Purísima Concepción near Lompoc, California, c. 1900.
San Rafael Arcángel restored church on the left
Ruins of the walls of Sub Mission Santa Margarita in 1906
Rear of bell tower at Mission Asistencia of San Antonio at Pala, c.1888-1903
The original Mission San Francisco de Asís adobe structure is the smaller building at left, while the larger structure is a basilica completed in 1918 (the architectural style was influenced by designs exhibited at San Diego's Panama-California Exposition in 1915).

Once fully implemented, the secularization act took away much of the California Mission land and sold it or gave it away in large grants called ranchos.

Virginia Land Office warrant issued in 1779 to Joseph Cabell, assignee of Sgt. Gabriel Penn, to receive 200 acres of land in return for Penn's service in the French and Indian War

Land grant

Gift of real estate—land or its use privileges—made by a government or other authority as an incentive, means of enabling works, or as a reward for services to an individual, especially in return for military service.

Gift of real estate—land or its use privileges—made by a government or other authority as an incentive, means of enabling works, or as a reward for services to an individual, especially in return for military service.

Virginia Land Office warrant issued in 1779 to Joseph Cabell, assignee of Sgt. Gabriel Penn, to receive 200 acres of land in return for Penn's service in the French and Indian War

During the Mexican period of California (and other portions of Mexican territories inherited from New Spain), the Mexican government granted individuals hundreds of ranchos or large tracts of land.

Rancho Bernardo, San Diego

Master-planned community in the northern hills of the city of San Diego, California.

Master-planned community in the northern hills of the city of San Diego, California.

Sony Electronics
Rancho Bernardo

Rancho Bernardo is located on the Rancho San Bernardo Mexican land grant made between 1842 and 1845.

Monterey, California

City located in Monterey County on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on the U.S. state of California's Central Coast.

City located in Monterey County on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on the U.S. state of California's Central Coast.

Gaspar de Zúñiga, 5th Count of Monterrey, namesake of Monterey Bay and thus the city and county
Royal Presidio Chapel c. 1934. The existing building dates to 1794.
The Old Custom House in 1936. Construction began in 1814 under Spanish rule.
Monterey Bay area in 1917
Rock sea wall near Coast Guard Station bordering Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
Monterey, California products treemap, 2020
The California Churrigueresque style Golden State Theatre.
California's First Theater
Cannery Row
Old Del Monte Hotel, site of the current Naval Postgraduate School

Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, but the civil and religious institutions of Alta California remained much the same until the 1830s, when the secularization of the missions converted most of the mission pasture lands into private land grant ranchos.

San Diego

Major city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexican border.

Major city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexican border.

The Kumeyaay, also known as the Diegueño, have inhabited the area of San Diego for thousands of years.
San Diego's namesake is the 15th-century Spanish saint Didacus of Alcalá.
José María Estudillo served as commandant of the Presidio of San Diego and founded the Estudillo family, a powerful San Diego clan of Californios.
The 1846 Battle of San Pasqual was a decisive battle between American and Californio forces during the U.S. Conquest of California.
The namesake of Horton Plaza, Alonzo Horton developed "New Town," which became Downtown San Diego.
Balboa Park on the cover of a guidebook for the World Exposition of 1915
Satellite view of San Diego and Tijuana, Mexico
Mission Valley facing Northwest, taken from Arista Street. Mission Bay can be seen in the distance.
Normal Heights, a neighborhood of San Diego
San Diego skyline, seen in January 2021
Surfers at Pacific Beach
Coastal canyon in Torrey Pines State Reserve
San Diego viewed against the Witch Creek Fire smoke
Map of racial distribution in San Diego, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
A U.S. Navy vice admiral and an intelligence specialist celebrating Hispanic American Heritage Month in San Diego
USS Midway museum ship
F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego and the USS John C. Stennis
View on Harbor Drive
Downtown San Diego, as seen from Coronado Island
Qualcomm corporate headquarters
Official portrait of Mayor Todd Gloria
San Diego City Council chambers
San Diego Police Department car in the city center
San Diego State University's Hepner Hall
University of California, San Diego's Geisel Library, named for Theodor Seuss Geisel ("Dr. Seuss")
The Museum of Us
Petco Park, home of the Padres since 2004
I-5 looking south toward downtown San Diego
View of Coronado and San Diego from the air
Cross Border Xpress bridge from the terminal in San Diego on the right to the main terminal of Tijuana Airport on the left

Beyond the town, Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.

California

State in the Western United States.

State in the Western United States.

A map of California tribal groups and languages at the time of European contact
The coat of arms granted to the Californias by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza
Mission San Diego de Alcalá drawn as it was in 1848. Established in 1769, it was the first of the California Missions.
Map showing Alta California in 1838, when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province
The flag used by Juan Bautista Alvarado's 1836 movement for Californian independence
The Russians from Alaska established their largest settlement in California, Fort Ross, in 1812.
The Bear Flag of the California Republic was first raised in Sonoma in 1846 during the Bear Flag Revolt.
Yokayo, a village of Pomo people in Ukiah (Mendocino County), c. 1916
Hollywood film studios, 1922
The "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage, where Stanford University graduates Bill Hewlett and David Packard developed their first product in the 1930s
A topographic map of California
Big Sur coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge
Yosemite National Park
Cylindropuntia bigelovii in the Joshua Tree National Park
Köppen climate types in California
Death Valley, in the Mojave Desert
Five of the twenty largest wildfires in California history were part of the 2020 wildfire season.
A Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) in Joshua Tree
A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
Sea otter in Morro Bay, California
Mission San Diego de Alcalá, first of the Spanish missions in California
Sunset at Venice Beach
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.
Torrance High School, one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California
The University of California, Berkeley is the first and oldest campus of the UC system.
The Claremont Colleges east of L.A. include some of the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S.
A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across California
Orange Grove outside of Santa Paula
The Googleplex in Mountain View, California, is the corporate headquarters of Google. Silicon Valley is a center for the global technology industry.
Economic regions of California
Moss Landing Power Plant, located on the coast of Monterey Bay
Solar Energy Generating Systems, located in the Mojave Desert
The Golden Gate Bridge
The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in Los Angeles, one of California's tall "stack" interchanges
Map of California showing the primary roadways
Amtrak California train in Pinole
Aerial view of the Delta–Mendota Canal (left) and the California Aqueduct, at the Interstate 205 crossing west of Tracy
California budget 2022-2023
The California State Capitol in Sacramento
Democrats Jerry Brown and Eric Garcetti. Brown served twice as Governor of California and Garcetti is currently serving as Mayor of Los Angeles.
California GDP by sector in 2017<ref name="auto">{{Cite web |title=SAGDP2N Gross domestic product (GDP) by state |url=https://www.bea.gov/data/gdp/gdp-state |access-date=December 21, 2018 |publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis}}</ref>
Had California been an independent country in 2021 its gross domestic product (nominal) would have been ranked fifth in the world.<ref>{{Cite web |title=5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects |url=https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=69&pr.y=15&sy=2018&ey=2018&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C672%2C914%2C946%2C612%2C137%2C614%2C546%2C311%2C962%2C213%2C674%2C911%2C676%2C193%2C548%2C122%2C556%2C912%2C678%2C313%2C181%2C419%2C867%2C513%2C682%2C316%2C684%2C913%2C273%2C124%2C868%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C943%2C218%2C686%2C963%2C688%2C616%2C518%2C223%2C728%2C516%2C558%2C918%2C138%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C624%2C692%2C522%2C694%2C622%2C142%2C156%2C449%2C626%2C564%2C628%2C565%2C228%2C283%2C924%2C853%2C233%2C288%2C632%2C293%2C636%2C566%2C634%2C964%2C238%2C182%2C662%2C359%2C960%2C453%2C423%2C968%2C935%2C922%2C128%2C714%2C611%2C862%2C321%2C135%2C243%2C716%2C248%2C456%2C469%2C722%2C253%2C942%2C642%2C718%2C643%2C724%2C939%2C576%2C644%2C936%2C819%2C961%2C172%2C813%2C132%2C199%2C646%2C733%2C648%2C184%2C915%2C524%2C134%2C361%2C652%2C362%2C174%2C364%2C328%2C732%2C258%2C366%2C656%2C734%2C654%2C144%2C336%2C146%2C263%2C463%2C268%2C528%2C532%2C923%2C944%2C738%2C176%2C578%2C534%2C537%2C536%2C742%2C429%2C866%2C433%2C369%2C178%2C744%2C436%2C186%2C136%2C925%2C343%2C869%2C158%2C746%2C439%2C926%2C916%2C466%2C664%2C112%2C826%2C111%2C542%2C298%2C967%2C927%2C443%2C846%2C917%2C299%2C544%2C582%2C941%2C474%2C446%2C754%2C666%2C698%2C668&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a= |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190323111307/https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2016/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=69&pr.y=15&sy=2018&ey=2018&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C672%2C914%2C946%2C612%2C137%2C614%2C546%2C311%2C962%2C213%2C674%2C911%2C676%2C193%2C548%2C122%2C556%2C912%2C678%2C313%2C181%2C419%2C867%2C513%2C682%2C316%2C684%2C913%2C273%2C124%2C868%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C943%2C218%2C686%2C963%2C688%2C616%2C518%2C223%2C728%2C516%2C558%2C918%2C138%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C624%2C692%2C522%2C694%2C622%2C142%2C156%2C449%2C626%2C564%2C628%2C565%2C228%2C283%2C924%2C853%2C233%2C288%2C632%2C293%2C636%2C566%2C634%2C964%2C238%2C182%2C662%2C359%2C960%2C453%2C423%2C968%2C935%2C922%2C128%2C714%2C611%2C862%2C321%2C135%2C243%2C716%2C248%2C456%2C469%2C722%2C253%2C942%2C642%2C718%2C643%2C724%2C939%2C576%2C644%2C936%2C819%2C961%2C172%2C813%2C132%2C199%2C646%2C733%2C648%2C184%2C915%2C524%2C134%2C361%2C652%2C362%2C174%2C364%2C328%2C732%2C258%2C366%2C656%2C734%2C654%2C144%2C336%2C146%2C263%2C463%2C268%2C528%2C532%2C923%2C944%2C738%2C176%2C578%2C534%2C537%2C536%2C742%2C429%2C866%2C433%2C369%2C178%2C744%2C436%2C186%2C136%2C925%2C343%2C869%2C158%2C746%2C439%2C926%2C916%2C466%2C664%2C112%2C826%2C111%2C542%2C298%2C967%2C927%2C443%2C846%2C917%2C299%2C544%2C582%2C941%2C474%2C446%2C754%2C666%2C698%2C668&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a= |archive-date=March 23, 2019 |access-date=December 15, 2018}}</ref>
Köppen climate types in California
The famous Tunnel tree at Yosemite National Park in May of 2022

These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California.