Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Birthplace of Ranjit Singh in Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's family genealogy
Maharaja Ranjit Singh with some of his wives.
Akali Phula Singh addressing Maharaja Ranjit Singh about his transgressions
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
circa 1816–29
"Maharaja Ranjit Singh " by Alfred de Dreux
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's throne, c. 1820–1830, Hafiz Muhammad Multani, now at V & A Museum.
Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire at its peak
In 1835, Maharaja Ranjit Singh donated 1 tonne of gold for plating the Kashi Vishwanath Temple's dome.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
2009 portrait of Ranjit Singh wearing the Koh-i-noor diamond as a armlet.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque.
A lithograph by Emily Eden showing one of the favourite horses of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his collection of jewels, including the Koh-i-Noor
Statue of Ranjit Singh in Amritsar.

The first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

- Ranjit Singh

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Golden Temple

Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Interior of Durbar Sahib with gold encrusted walls and featuring a golden chandelier
Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The Golden Temple at twilight
An 1880 photograph of the Golden Temple, sacred pool and the nearby buildings. The walled courtyard and entrances were added later.
The Golden temple complex map
Side view of the causeway leading from the Darshani Deorhi (right) to the sanctum (left)
The historic Dukh Bhanjani Ber tree inside the courtyard, next to Ath Sath Tirath.
Volunteers helping prepare the food
Langar hall from inside

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, after founding the Sikh Empire, rebuilt it in marble and copper in 1809, and overlaid the sanctum with gold leaf in 1830.

Sikh Khalsa Army

The military force of the Khalsa, formed in 1598 by Guru Hargobind.

Captured Sikh battle standard of First Anglo-Sikh War
Sikh Matchlock musket, known as toradar.
A Bungah-Wala Nihang with Gajgah
Akali Phula Singh in Dumala-Wala Nihang uniform.
Sikh soldiers receiving their pay at the Royal Durbar.
Fauj-i-Khas infantry standard
Ghorchara (Horse-mounted) Bodyguards of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab.
Misldar Sowars were part of the Ghorcharas.
A Sikh Ghorchara's helmet
A Sikh band of Fauj i Kilajats

Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia.

Sikh Empire

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

The Sikh Empire, also known as the Punjab Empire, was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.


City and capital of Gujranwala Division located in Pakistan.

The birthplace of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire.
The interior of the Sheranwala Baradari.
Estcourt Clock Tower, commonly known as Ghanta Ghar, was built in 1906.
Gujranwala's rail station dates from the British era.
Tomb of Maha Singh, ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl and father of Ranjit Singh.
Gujranwala is in the Rechna Doab region of Punjab, marked in grey.
Brandreth Gate in old Gujranwala.
The Civil Lines neighbourhood has many buildings that date from the British colonial era.
Saint Paul's Presbyterian Church
Gujranwala is home to a wide variety of industries.
Hospital road and Sialkot road, Church road, Gujranwala
Gujranwala Flyover
Gujranwala railway station
University of Punjab, Gujranwala Campus
Islamia College

The city served as the capital of the Sukerchakia Misl state between 1763 and 1799, and is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh.


Second largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, after Ludhiana.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises
Statue of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Amritsar
The Golden Temple is one of the most important places of worship in the city
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir, popularly known as Durgiana temple, is a popular place of worship among city's residents.
Sri Guru Ramdas Ji International Airport
Amritsar Junction
Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand
Khalsa College

During Sikh Empire in 1822 Maharaja Ranjit Singh fortified the city starting from a wall at Katra Maha Singh area.


Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

The Confederacy of these states was unified and transformed into the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

In 1799, the Sikh Empire was formally established under the rule of Ranjit Singh with its capital based in Lahore, and Punjab remained under Sikh rule until the arrival of the British Empire.

Kharak Singh

The second Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.

He was the eldest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire and his consort, Maharani Datar Kaur.

Duleep Singh

The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.

Maharaja Sir Duleep Singh in 1875, aged 37
A young Duleep Singh
Duleep Singh, aged 16, on the Lower Terrace of Osbourne House, Isle of Wight in 1854
Duleep Singh (1838–1893) in 1854; portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter
Duleep Singh, in ceremonial dress, 1852, by the English painter George Duncan Beechey
Sir Duleep Singh in the 1860s
Elveden Church 1909: Graves of Maharaja Duleep Singh, his wife Maharani Bamba and son Prince Edward Albert Duleep Singh
Statue of Duleep Singh on Butten Island, Thetford

He was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's youngest son, the only child of Maharani Jind Kaur.


Northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
Topographic map of Kashmir
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
The Indus River system
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

In 1820 the Sikh Empire, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.