Raqqa

CallinicumRaqqahRaqqa, SyriaAl-RaqqaNicephoriumRaqqa Cityal-RaqqahAr-RaqqaCallinicum dei MaronitiCallinicum of the Maronites
Raqqa, also called Raqa, Rakka and ar-Raqqah''', is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo.wikipedia
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Tabqa Dam

Al-Tabqaal-Thawra Damdams on the Euphrates
It is located 40 km east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam.
The Tabqa Dam (سد الطبقة, Sadd al-Ṭabqa; Bendava Tebqa; ), or al-Thawra Dam as it is also named (سد الثورة, Sadd al-thawra, literally "Dam of the Revolution"), most commonly known as Euphrates Dam (سد الفرات, Sadd al-Furāt; Bendava Firatê; ), is an earthen dam on the Euphrates, located 40 km upstream from the city of Raqqa in Raqqa Governorate, Syria.

Harun al-Rashid

Hārūn al-RashīdHarun al RashidHarun ar-Rashid
The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid.
In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria.

Battle of Raqqa (2017)

Battle of Raqqabattle2017
On 17 October 2017, following a lengthy battle that saw massive destruction to the city, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) declared the liberation of Raqqa from ISIL to be complete.
The 2017 Battle of Raqqa was the fifth and final phase of the Raqqa campaign (2016–2017) launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State (ISIL) with an aim to seize the city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL since 2014.

International military intervention against ISIL

Military intervention against ISILMilitary intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the LevantWar on ISIL
As a result, the city was hit by airstrikes from the Syrian government, Russia, the United States, and several other countries.
In retaliation for the November 2015 Paris attacks, the French Air Force significantly intensified airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria, hitting among other targets the Syrian city of Raqqa, the de facto capital of ISIL.

Syrian Democratic Forces

SDFInner-SDF conflict during the Syrian Civil WarSyrian Arab Coalition
On 17 October 2017, following a lengthy battle that saw massive destruction to the city, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) declared the liberation of Raqqa from ISIL to be complete.
The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISISISILIslamic State
On 17 October 2017, following a lengthy battle that saw massive destruction to the city, the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) declared the liberation of Raqqa from ISIL to be complete. It was also the capital of Islamic State Caliphate between 2014 and 2017 under Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured in 2013 by the Syrian opposition and then by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
According to The Economist, dissidents in the former ISIL capital of Raqqa report that "all 12 of the judges who now run its court system ... are Saudis".

Uwais al-Qarni Mosque

His burial placeOwais al-Qorani's shrine
Most non-Sunni religious structures in the city were destroyed by ISIL, most notably the Shi'ite Uwais al-Qarni Mosque, while others were forcibly converted into mosques.
Uwais al-Qarni Mosque (Arabic: مسجد أويس القرني) was a Shi'ite mosque in Raqqa, Syria, until it was destroyed by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant on May 31, 2014.

Battle of Siffin

SiffinBattle of SiffeenBattle of Ṣiffīn
In 656, during the First Fitna, the Battle of Siffin, the decisive clash between Ali and the Umayyad Mu'awiya took place about 45 km west of Raqqa.
It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib who ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
The city played an important role in the Byzantine Empire's relation with Sassanid Persia and the wars fought between the two empires.
After an early success against the Emperor Galerius near Callinicum on the Euphrates in 296, he was eventually decisively defeated by them.

Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
During the Syrian Civil War, the city was captured in 2013 by the Syrian opposition and then by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
As of 2014, the Syrian Arab Air Force used airstrikes targeted against ISIL in Raqqa and al-Hasakah in coordination with the Iraqi government.

Tuttul

Tell Bi'a
The area of Raqqa has been inhabited since remote antiquity, as is attested by the mounds (tells) of Tall Zaydan and Tall al-Bi'a, the latter being identified with the Babylonian city Tuttul.
Tell Bi'a is located near the modern city of Raqqa and the confluence of the rivers Balikh and Euphrates.

Upper Mesopotamia

Jaziraal-JaziraNorthern Mesopotamia
Ibn Ghanm's successor as governor of Raqqa and the Jazira, Sa'id ibn Amir ibn Hidhyam, built the city's first mosque.
The major settlements are Mosul, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli.

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Abū Bakr al-BaghdadiAbu Bakr Al BaghdadiAbu al-Baghdadi
It was also the capital of Islamic State Caliphate between 2014 and 2017 under Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
In January 2014, ISIL expelled Jabhat al-Nusra from the Syrian city of Raqqa, and in the same month clashes between the two in Syria's Deir ez-Zor Governorate killed hundreds of fighters and displaced tens of thousands of civilians.

Resafa

SergiopolisRasafaRezeph
Raqqa lay on the crossroads between Syria and Iraq and the road between Damascus, Palmyra and the temporary seat of the caliphate Resafa, al-Ruha'.
It is an archaeological site situated southwest of the city of Raqqa and the Euphrates.

Tell Zeidan

Tall Zaydan
The area of Raqqa has been inhabited since remote antiquity, as is attested by the mounds (tells) of Tall Zaydan and Tall al-Bi'a, the latter being identified with the Babylonian city Tuttul.
The dig consists of three large mounds on the east bank of the Balikh River, slightly north of its confluence with the Euphrates River, and is located about 5 km east of the modern Syrian city of Raqqa (or Raqqa).

Iyad ibn Ghanm

Iyad ibn GhanimIyāḍ b. Ghanm
In the year 639 or 640, the city fell to the Muslim conqueror Iyad ibn Ghanm.
In the latter territory, he launched a campaign to assert Muslim rule, first capturing Raqqa after besieging it and plundering its countryside.

Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL

destroyeddestruction of cultural heritageISIL destroyed
Most non-Sunni religious structures in the city were destroyed by ISIL, most notably the Shi'ite Uwais al-Qarni Mosque, while others were forcibly converted into mosques.
In the Syrian city of Raqqa, ISIL publicly ordered the bulldozing of a colossal ancient Assyrian gateway lion sculpture from the 8th century BC.

Numayrid dynasty

Banu NumayrNumayridNumayrids
The Banu Numayr had their pasture in the Diyār Muḍar, and the Banu Uqay had their centre in Qal'at Ja'bar.
The senior branch of the dynasty, founded by Waththab ibn Sabiq in 990, ruled the Euphrates cities of Harran, Saruj and Raqqa more or less continuously until the late 11th century.

Raqqa ware

Most famous is the blue-glazed so-called Raqqa ware.
Raqqa or Rakka ware is a style of lustreware ceramic pottery that was a mainstay of the economy of Raqqa in northeastern Syria during the Ayyubid dynasty.

Maurice (emperor)

MauriceEmperor MauriceMaurikios
527–565). In 580, during another war with Persia, the future Emperor Maurice scored a victory over the Persians near the city during his retreat from an abortive expedition to capture Ctesiphon.
He then marched his army toward Callinicum on the Euphrates.

Qasr al-Banat

Palace of the MaidensQasr al-Banāt
The still-visible Bāb Baghdād (Baghdad Gate) and the so-called Qasr al-Banāt (Castle of the Ladies) are notable buildings of the period.
Qasr al-Banat, Girls castle or Palace of the Ladies, are a set of brick ruins of a residence dating from 12th century in the Syrian city of Raqqa.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Raqqa, also called Raqa, Rakka and ar-Raqqah''', is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo.

Battle of Callinicum

Callinicumbattleensuing battle
The town was near the site of a battle in 531 between Romans and Sasanians, when the latter tried to invade the Roman territories, surprisingly via arid regions in Syria, to turn the tide of the Iberian War.
As they neared Callinicum, Belisarius, who commanded the Byzantine army, set out to follow them as they advanced westwards.

Abbasid Caliphate

AbbasidAbbasidsAbbasid dynasty
The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum (formerly a Latin and now a Maronite Catholic titular see) was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid.
Al-Mansur, who was responsible for the creation of Baghdad, also planned the city of Raqqa, along the Euphrates.

Byzantine–Sasanian wars

Byzantine–Sassanid WarsByzantine-Sassanid WarsByzantine-Sasanian wars
The city played an important role in the Byzantine Empire's relation with Sassanid Persia and the wars fought between the two empires.
Immediately after the Roman failure at Callinicum, which resulted in the dismissal of Belisarius, unsuccessful negotiations between Justinian's envoy, Hermogenes, and Kavadh took place.