A report on Reason

Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos), c. 1797
René Descartes
Dan Sperber believes that reasoning in groups is more effective and promotes their evolutionary fitness.

Capacity of consciously applying logic by drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth.

- Reason
Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos), c. 1797

64 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The School of Athens (1509–1511) by Raphael, depicting famous classical Greek philosophers in an idealized setting inspired by ancient Greek architecture.

Philosophy

14 links

The School of Athens (1509–1511) by Raphael, depicting famous classical Greek philosophers in an idealized setting inspired by ancient Greek architecture.
The Vinegar Tasters (Japan, Edo period, 1802-1816) by Kanō Isen'in, depicting the three main philosophical figures in East Asian thought: Buddha, Confucius and Laozi.
Statue of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), a major figure of ancient Greek philosophy, in Aristotle's Park, Stagira.
A painting of the influential modern philosopher Immanuel Kant (in the blue coat) with his friends. Other figures include Christian Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen.
A page of The Maxims of Ptahhotep, traditionally attributed to the Vizier Ptahhotep (c. 2375–2350 BCE).
An Iranian portrait of Avicenna on a Silver Vase. He was one of the most influential philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Adi Shankara is one of the most frequently studied Hindu philosophers.
The parable of the blind men and the elephant illustrates the important Jain doctrine of anēkāntavāda.
Statue of the Neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Xi at the White Deer Grotto Academy in Lushan Mountain.
Kitaro Nishida, considered the founder of the Kyoto School of philosophical thought, c. 1943.
Painting of Zera Yacob from Claude Sumner's Classical Ethiopian Philosophy.
A Tlamatini (Aztec philosopher) observing the stars, from the Codex Mendoza.
Depiction of Pachacuti worshipping Inti (god Sun) at Coricancha, in the 17th century second chronicles of Martín de Murúa. Pachacuti was a major Incan ruler, author and poet.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) was an English writer and philosopher.
The Beijing imperial college was an intellectual center for Confucian ethics and classics during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties.
Dignaga founded a school of Buddhist epistemology and logic.
The beginning of Aristotle's Metaphysics in an incunabulum decorated with hand-painted miniatures.
Thomas Hobbes, best known for his Leviathan, which expounded an influential formulation of social contract theory.
Martin Luther King Jr.

Philosophy (from, ) is the systematized study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence, reason, knowledge, values, mind, and language.

René Descartes, who is often credited as the father of modern philosophy, was often preoccupied with epistemological questions in his work.

Epistemology

13 links

Branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge.

Branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge.

René Descartes, who is often credited as the father of modern philosophy, was often preoccupied with epistemological questions in his work.
Bertrand Russell famously brought attention to the distinction between propositional knowledge and knowledge by acquaintance.
An Euler diagram representing a version of the traditional definition of knowledge that is adapted to the Gettier problem. This problem gives us reason to think that not all justified true beliefs constitute knowledge.
The analytic–synthetic distinction was first proposed by Immanuel Kant.
David Hume, one of the most staunch defenders of empiricism.

Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic justification, the rationality of belief, and various related issues.

Portrait by Johann Gottlieb Becker, 1768

Immanuel Kant

13 links

German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers.

German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers.

Portrait by Johann Gottlieb Becker, 1768
Kant's house in Königsberg
Portrait of philosopher David Hume
Engraving of Immanuel Kant
Kant with friends, including Christian Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen
Kant's tomb in Kaliningrad, Russia
Immanuel Kant by Carle Vernet (1758–1836)
Kant statue in the School of Philosophy and Human Sciences (FAFICH) in the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Immanuel Kant
In his Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law."
5 DM 1974 D silver coin commemorating the 250th birthday of Immanuel Kant in Königsberg
Statue of Immanuel Kant in Kaliningrad (Königsberg), Russia. Replica by of the original by Christian Daniel Rauch lost in 1945.
West German postage stamp, 1974, commemorating the 250th anniversary of Kant's birth

Kant believed that reason is also the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment.

Roman copy of a portrait bust c. 370 BC

Plato

13 links

Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Roman copy of a portrait bust c. 370 BC
Diogenes Laertius is a principal source for the history of ancient Greek philosophy.
Through his mother, Plato was related to Solon.
Speusippus was Plato's nephew.
Plato was a wrestler
Plato in his academy, drawing after a painting by Swedish painter Carl Johan Wahlbom
Bust of Pythagoras in Rome.
A detail of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Bust of Socrates at the Louvre.
The "windmill proof" of the Pythagorean theorem found in Euclid's Elements.
What is justice?
A Venn diagram illustrating the classical theory of knowledge.
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, with fragment of Plato's Republic
Bust excavated at the Villa of the Papyri, possibly of Dionysus, Plato or Poseidon.
The Death of Socrates (1787), by Jacques-Louis David
Plato's Allegory of the Cave by Jan Saenredam, according to Cornelis van Haarlem, 1604, Albertina, Vienna
Painting of a scene from Plato's Symposium (Anselm Feuerbach, 1873)
Volume 3, pp. 32–33, of the 1578 Stephanus edition of Plato, showing a passage of Timaeus with the Latin translation and notes of Jean de Serres
First page of the Euthyphro, from the Clarke Plato (Codex Oxoniensis Clarkianus 39), 895 AD. The text is Greek minuscule.
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right) a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand. Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens.
"The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." (Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality, 1929).

In addition, the ideal city is used as an image to illuminate the state of one's soul, or the will, reason, and desires combined in the human body.

Argument terminology

Deductive reasoning

9 links

Mental process of drawing deductive inferences.

Mental process of drawing deductive inferences.

Argument terminology

This psychological process starts from the premises and reasons to a conclusion based on and supported by these premises.

Aristotle

Empiricism

12 links

Theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

Theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

Aristotle
A drawing of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) from 1271
Thomas Hobbes
Bishop George Berkeley
David Hume's empiricism led to numerous philosophical schools.
Charles Sanders Peirce
William James

This view is commonly contrasted with rationalism, which states that knowledge may be derived from reason independently of the senses.

Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology

Cognitive science

8 links

Interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.

Interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes with input from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, computer science/artificial intelligence, and anthropology.

Figure illustrating the fields that contributed to the birth of cognitive science, including linguistics, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, philosophy, anthropology, and psychology
A well known example of a phrase structure tree. This is one way of representing human language that shows how different components are organized hierarchically.
The Necker cube, an example of an optical illusion
An optical illusion. The square A is exactly the same shade of gray as square B. See checker shadow illusion.
Image of the human head with the brain. The arrow indicates the position of the hypothalamus.
An artificial neural network with two layers.

Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.

The Thinker by Rodin (1840–1917), in the garden of the Musée Rodin

Thought

7 links

In their most common sense, the terms thought and thinking refer to conscious cognitive processes that can happen independently of sensory stimulation.

In their most common sense, the terms thought and thinking refer to conscious cognitive processes that can happen independently of sensory stimulation.

The Thinker by Rodin (1840–1917), in the garden of the Musée Rodin
Man thinking on a train journey

Reasoning, on the other hand, is the process of drawing conclusions from premises or evidence.

Argument terminology

Argument

7 links

Statement or group of statements called premises intended to determine the degree of truth or acceptability of another statement called conclusion.

Statement or group of statements called premises intended to determine the degree of truth or acceptability of another statement called conclusion.

Argument terminology

Logic is the study of the forms of reasoning in arguments and the development of standards and criteria to evaluate arguments.

Detail of Pythagoras with a tablet of ratios, numbers sacred to the Pythagoreans, from The School of Athens by Raphael. Vatican Palace, Vatican City.

Rationalism

10 links

Detail of Pythagoras with a tablet of ratios, numbers sacred to the Pythagoreans, from The School of Athens by Raphael. Vatican Palace, Vatican City.
Plato in The School of Athens, by Raphael
Ibn Sina Portrait on Silver Vase.
In spite of his early death, Spinoza exerted a profound influence on philosophy in the Age of Reason. He is often considered one of three most remarkable rationalists of modern Western thought, along with Descartes and Leibniz.

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".