Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reasonrationalreasonableunreasonablehuman reasoninglogicnatural reasonrational argument
Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.wikipedia
961 Related Articles

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

Rationality

rationalrational thoughtrational thinking
Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.
Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.

Inductive reasoning

inductioninductiveinductive logic
Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning.
Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion; this is in contrast to deductive reasoning.

Deductive reasoning

deductiondeductivedeductive logic
Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

Intuition

intuitiveintuitivelyIntuition (knowledge)
Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without recourse to conscious reasoning.

Argument

logical argumentargumentsproof
The field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.
Logic is the study of the forms of reasoning in arguments and the development of standards and criteria to evaluate arguments.

Psychology of reasoning

reasoninglogichow people reason
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw.
The psychology of reasoning is the study of how people reason, often broadly defined as the process of drawing conclusions to inform how people solve problems and make decisions.

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw.
Mental faculties of concern to cognitive scientists include language, perception, memory, attention, reasoning, and emotion; to understand these faculties, cognitive scientists borrow from fields such as linguistics, psychology, artificial intelligence, philosophy, neuroscience, and anthropology.

Automated reasoning

reasoningArtificial intelligence reasoningautomated inferencing
The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally.
Automated reasoning is an area of cognitive science (involves knowledge representation and reasoning) and metalogic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.

Verbal reasoning

verbal intelligenceverbal
Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning.
Verbal reasoning is understanding and reasoning using concepts framed in words.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
Here practical reasoning is the self-legislating or self-governing formulation of universal norms, and theoretical reasoning the way humans posit universal laws of nature.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking.

Truth

trueTruth theorytheory of truth
For example, reasoning is the means by which rational individuals understand sensory information from their environments, or conceptualize abstract dichotomies such as cause and effect, truth and falsehood, or ideas regarding notions of good or evil.
Logic is concerned with the patterns in reason that can help tell us if a proposition is true or not.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant attempted to show that Hume was wrong by demonstrating that a "transcendental" self, or "I", was a necessary condition of all experience.
Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment.

Norm (philosophy)

normativenormnorms
Here practical reasoning is the self-legislating or self-governing formulation of universal norms, and theoretical reasoning the way humans posit universal laws of nature.
A popular account of norms describes them as reasons to take action, to believe, and to feel.

Practical reason

practical reasoningpractical rationalitypractice
Here practical reasoning is the self-legislating or self-governing formulation of universal norms, and theoretical reasoning the way humans posit universal laws of nature.
In philosophy, practical reason is the use of reason to decide how to act.

Logos

λόγοςWordWord of God
He used the word speech as an English version of the Greek word logos so that speech did not need to be communicated.
300 BC, in which the logos was the active reason pervading and animating the Universe.

Human nature

humanitynaturehuman
Aristotle, Plato's student, defined human beings as rational animals, emphasizing reason as a characteristic of human nature.
It is clear from the works of his students Plato and Xenophon, and also by what was said about him by Aristotle (Plato's student), that Socrates was a rationalist and believed that the best life and the life most suited to human nature involved reasoning.

Eudaimonia

the good lifeEudaimonismeudaemonia
He defined the highest human happiness or well being (eudaimonia) as a life which is lived consistently, excellently and completely in accordance with reason.
In outline, for Aristotle, eudaimonia involves activity, exhibiting virtue (aretē sometimes translated as excellence) in accordance with reason.

Nous

noesisnoeticIntellect
Going further back, although Aristotle is a source of the idea that only humans have reason (logos), he does mention that animals with imagination, for whom sense perceptions can persist, come closest to having something like reasoning and nous, and even uses the word "logos" in one place to describe the distinctions which animals can perceive in such cases.
In philosophy, common English translations include "understanding" and "mind"; or sometimes "thought" or "reason" (in the sense of that which reasons, not the activity of reasoning).

Cognition

cognitivecognitive functioncognitive process
Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect.
It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallacieslogical fallacy
Flawed reasoning in arguments is known as fallacious reasoning. Bad reasoning within arguments can be because it commits either a formal fallacy or an informal fallacy.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.

Nikolas Kompridis

Kompridis
Nikolas Kompridis has proposed a widely encompassing view of reason as "that ensemble of practices that contributes to the opening and preserving of openness" in human affairs, and a focus on reason's possibilities for social change.
This interpretation is guided by an engagement with Martin Heidegger's concept of world disclosure, as well as alternative conceptions of key philosophical categories, like critique, agency, reason, and normativity.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Within the human mind or soul (psyche), reason was described by Plato as being the natural monarch which should rule over the other parts, such as spiritedness (thumos) and the passions.
In addition, the ideal city is used as an image to illuminate the state of one's soul, or the will, reason, and desires combined in the human body.

Formal fallacy

non sequiturlogical fallacylogical fallacies
Bad reasoning within arguments can be because it commits either a formal fallacy or an informal fallacy.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow") is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.