Rebbe

Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn of Lubavitch
The Bostoner Rebbe feert tish, lit. "runs [a] table" in his synagogue in Beitar Illit

Spiritual leader in the Hasidic movement, and the personalities of its dynasties.

- Rebbe

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Tzadik

Title in Judaism given to people considered righteous, such as biblical figures and later spiritual masters.

Joseph interprets Pharaoh's Dream (Genesis 41:15–41). Of the biblical figures in Judaism, Joseph is customarily called the Tzadik.
Moses speaks to the children of Israel
Correspondences; Yesod-Foundation: 9th sefirah, Tzadik, Covenant, channels Heaven to 10th sefirah: Kingship, Earth, Shekhinah, Israelites.
The Hasidic development of the tzadik combined the former roles of private mystic and social Maggid into communal mystical-leadership. Hasidic thought internalised the Ayin-Yesh Heavenly duality of Kabbalah into a complete paradigm for Deveikut perception of Divine Omnipresence. The Hasidic tzadik embodied this as a channel for the Divine flow.

Adapting former Kabbalistic theosophical terminology, Hasidic philosophy internalised mystical experience, emphasising devekut attachment to its Rebbe leadership, who embody and channel the Divine flow of blessing to the world.

List of Hasidic dynasties

Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn of Lubavitch

Each leader of the dynasty is often known as an ADMOR (abbreviation for ADoneinu MOreinu veRabeinu – "our master, our teacher, and our rabbi"), or simply as Rebbe (or "the Rebbe"), and at times called the "Rav" ("rabbi"), and sometimes referred to in English as a "Grand Rabbi";

Rosh yeshiva

Rosh yeshiva (ראש ישיבה, pl.

A stylized version of the abbreviation for libra pondo ("pound weight")

In Hasidic Judaism, the role of rosh yeshiva is secondary to the Rebbe, who is head of the Hasidic dynasty that controls it.

Chabad

For other uses of "Chabad", see Chabad (disambiguation).

Group picture in Crown Heights, Brooklyn
Chabad newspaper, Huh-Ukh (1911)
Schneersohn Family
A Lag BaOmer parade in front of Chabad headquarters at 770 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, in 1987
President Ronald Reagan receives menorah from the "American Friends of Lubavitch," White House, 1984
Map of countries with Chabad-Lubavitch emissaries
Russia's Chief Rabbi Berel Lazar (left) speaks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 28 December 2016
Chabad Lubavitch Mitzvah tank in Golders Green, London
Picture of room '302'

In the 1930s, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, moved the center of the Chabad movement from Russia to Poland.

Rav

Hebrew generic term for a teacher of Torah or other spiritual guide.

In some Hasidic groups, the Rebbe is also referred to as a Rav; in other circles, the Rav is distinct from the Rebbe and is the highest Dayan (judge of a Jewish religious court of law) of the group.

Hasidic philosophy

Rebuilt synagogue of the Baal Shem Tov in Medzhybizh, Ukraine
Grave of Elimelech of Lizhensk, leading disseminator of Hasidism in Poland-Galicia
Simcha Bunim of Peshischa, successor to The Holy Jew, who continued the Peshischa School of Hasidism
Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of Chabad, the intellectual school in Hasidism
Pilgrimage gathering at Nachman of Breslov's burial place in Uman, Ukraine
Plaque on the mausoleum of Mordechai Yosef Leiner of Ishbitz, author of the antinomian Mei Hashiloach
Title page of Toldot Yaakov Yosef, 1867 edition. This work was the first published Hasidic text.
Title page of Maggid Devarav L'Yaakov (Koretz, 1781 edition).

Hasidic philosophy or Hasidism (חסידות), alternatively transliterated as Hasidut or Chassidus, consists of the teachings of the Hasidic movement, which are the teachings of the Hasidic rebbes, often in the form of commentary on the Torah (the Five books of Moses) and Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism).

Rabbi

Spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism.

Rabbi instructing children in 2004
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Judaism of the second half of the twentieth century.

See also Rav and Rebbe.

Misnagdim

Religious movement among the Jews of Eastern Europe which resisted the rise of Hasidism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

An anathema against the Hasidim, signed by the Gaon of Vilna and other community officials. August 1781.
The Vilna Gaon
Litvishe yeshiva students in Israel

Opponents of Hasidim held that Hasidim viewed their rebbes in an idolatrous fashion.

Hasidic Judaism

Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe.

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The Kaliver Rebbe, Holocaust survivor, inspiring his court on the festival of Sukkot
Kvitel requests for blessing piled on the graves of the last Lubavitcher Rebbes
Hasidic family in Borough Park, Brooklyn. The man is wearing a shtreimel, and either a bekishe or a rekel. The woman is wearing a wig, called a sheitel, as she is forbidden to show her hair in public.
Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich, Munkacser Rebbe, wearing a kolpik
The Dorohoi Rebbe in his traditional rabbinical Sabbath garb
Sculpture of the Hasidic movement's celebration of spirituality on the Knesset Menorah
Israel ben Eliezer's autograph
Shivchei HaBesht (Praises of the Baal Shem Tov), the first compilation of Hasidic hagiographic storytelling, was printed from manuscripts in 1815
Palace of the Ruzhin dynasty, known for its "royal" mannerism, in Sadhora.
Belzer Rebbe Aharon Rokeach (depicted 1934), who was hidden from the Nazis and smuggled out of Europe.

Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe.

Posek

Term in Jewish law for a "decisor", a legal scholar who determines the position of halakha, the Jewish religious laws derived from the written and Oral Torah in cases of Jewish law where previous authorities are inconclusive, or in those situations where no clear halakhic precedent exists.

Toledot HaPoskim, History of the Jewish Codes, by Chaim Tchernowitz.

Most rely on the rav in their community (in Hasidic communities, sometimes the rebbe) or the leading posek.