Rebreather

oxygen rebreatherbreathing bagrebreathersClosed circuit rebreatherbreathing apparatusclosed circuitrebreathingclosed-circuit divingclosed-circuit scubacounterlung
A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath.wikipedia
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Scuba set

scubascuba equipmentscuba gear
In rebreather scuba, the system recycles the exhaled gas, removes carbon dioxide, and compensates for the used oxygen before the diver is supplied with gas from the breathing circuit.

Breathing gas

breathing gasesmixed gasGas
Rebreather technology may be used where breathing gas supply is limited, such as underwater or in space, where the environment is toxic or hypoxic, as in firefighting, mine rescue and high-altitude operations, or where the breathing gas is specially enriched or contains expensive components, such as helium diluent or anaesthetic gases.
When breathing gas is recycled in a rebreather or life support system, the carbon dioxide is removed by scrubbers before the gas is re-used.

Carbon dioxide scrubber

carbon dioxide scrubbingCO 2 scrubberscrubber
The breathing reflex is triggered by CO 2 concentration in the blood, not by the oxygen concentration, so even a small buildup of CO 2 in the inhaled gas quickly becomes intolerable; if a person tries to directly rebreathe their exhaled breathing gas, they will soon feel an acute sense of suffocation, so rebreathers must chemically remove the CO 2 in a component known as a carbon dioxide scrubber.
It is used to treat exhaust gases from industrial plants or from exhaled air in life support systems such as rebreathers or in spacecraft, submersible craft or airtight chambers.

Hypoxia (medical)

hypoxiahypoxicanoxia
As the amount of oxygen required by the diver increases with work rate, the gas injection rate must be carefully chosen and controlled to prevent unconsciousness in the diver due to hypoxia.
Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g. while diving underwater especially when using closed-circuit rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air.

Mine rescue

mines rescueMines Rescue StationRescuers
The apparatus had been invented some years earlier by Hermann Stelzner, an engineer at the Dräger company, for mine rescue.
The apparatus was further developed by Siebe Gorman into the Proto rebreather.

Space suit

spacesuitspace suitsspacesuits
Related preceding technologies include the gas mask used in World War II, the oxygen mask used by pilots of high flying bombers in World War II, the high altitude or vacuum suit required by pilots of the Lockheed U-2 and SR-71 Blackbird, the diving suit, rebreather, scuba diving gear, and many others.

Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus

Davis Escape SetDSEADavis escape gear
Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman, improved the oxygen rebreather in 1910 with his invention of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, the first practical rebreather to be made in quantity. In the 1930s, Italian sport spearfishers began to use the Davis rebreather; Italian manufacturers received a license from the English patent holders to produce it.
The Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus (also referred to as DSEA), was an early type of oxygen rebreather invented in 1910 by Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman and Co. Ltd., inspired by the earlier Fleuss system, and adopted by the Royal Navy after further development by Davis in 1927.

Siebe Gorman Salvus

breathing apparatus
Various industrial oxygen rebreathers such as the Siebe Gorman Salvus and the Siebe Gorman Proto, both invented in the early 1900s, were derived from it.
The Siebe Gorman Salvus is a light oxygen rebreather for industrial use (including by firemen and in coalmine rescue) or in shallow diving.

Siebe Gorman Proto

Proto
Various industrial oxygen rebreathers such as the Siebe Gorman Salvus and the Siebe Gorman Proto, both invented in the early 1900s, were derived from it.
The Proto is a type of rebreather that was made by Siebe Gorman.

Self-contained breathing apparatus

SCBAbreathing apparatusself contained breathing apparatus
His self-contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with (estimated) 50–60% O 2 supplied from a copper tank and CO 2 scrubbed by rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash; the system giving a duration of about three hours.
The closed-circuit type filters, supplements, and recirculates exhaled gas: see rebreather for more information.

Recreational diving

recreational diversrecreationalrecreational scuba diving
Technical diving and the use of rebreathers are increasing, particularly in areas of the world where deeper wreck diving is the main underwater attraction.

Henry Fleuss

FleussHenry A. Fleuss
The first commercially practical closed-circuit scuba was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London.
In 1878 he was granted a patent which improved rebreathers.

Robert Davis (inventor)

Robert DavisRobert Henry DavisSir Robert Davis
Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman, improved the oxygen rebreather in 1910 with his invention of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, the first practical rebreather to be made in quantity.
His main invention was the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, an oxygen rebreather that Davis patented for the first time in 1910, inspired by the rebreathers that Henry Fleuss patented as of 1876.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath.
Pure or nearly pure use in diving at pressures higher than atmospheric is usually limited to rebreathers, or decompression at relatively shallow depths (~6 meters depth, or less), or medical treatment in recompression chambers at pressures up to 2.8 bar, where acute oxygen toxicity can be managed without the risk of drowning.

Frogman

frogmencombat divercombat divers
The purpose is to extend the breathing endurance of a limited gas supply, and, for covert military use by frogmen, eliminating the bubbles appearing when using an open circuit system.
In the U.S. military and intelligence community, divers trained in scuba or CCUBA who deploy for tactical assault missions are called "combat divers".

Christian J. Lambertsen

Christian LambertsenChris LambertsenLambertsen
Rebreathers for the US Navy were developed by Dr. Christian J. Lambertsen for underwater warfare.
Christian James Lambertsen (May 15, 1917 – February 11, 2011) was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare.

Hans Hass

HansHans and Lotte HassHans Hass, Ph.D.
The diving pioneer Hans Hass used Dräger oxygen rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater cinematography.
He led development of a type of rebreather.

Decima Flottiglia MAS

Decima MASX MAS10th Light Flotilla
This practice soon came to the attention of the Italian Navy, which developed its frogman unit Decima Flottiglia MAS and was used effectively in World War II.
In the 1930s Italian sport spearfishermen began using industrial or submarine-escape oxygen rebreathers, starting scuba diving in Italy.

Siebe Gorman

Siebe Gorman & Company LtdSiebe Gorman CompanySiebe, Gorman & Co.
Sir Robert Davis, head of Siebe Gorman, improved the oxygen rebreather in 1910 with his invention of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus, the first practical rebreather to be made in quantity. The first commercially practical closed-circuit scuba was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London.
See makes of rebreather.

Hydroxide

OHhydroxide ionOH −
Heating turns the saltpetre into potassium oxide or hydroxide, which absorbs carbon dioxide from the air.
Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas.

Spearfishing

spear fishingspearsspearfishermen
In the 1930s, Italian sport spearfishers began to use the Davis rebreather; Italian manufacturers received a license from the English patent holders to produce it.
Modern scuba diving had its genesis in the systematic use of rebreathers by Italian sport spearfishers during the 1930s.

Halcyon PVR-BASC

PVR-BASC
The Halcyon PVR-BASC uses a variable volume inner bellows system to compensate for depth.
The Halcyon Passive, Variable Ratio-Biased Addition Semi-Closed rebreather is a unique design of semi-closed rebreather using a depth-compensated passive gas addition system.

Cave diving

cave divercave diverscave
Some home made rebreathers were used by cave divers to penetrate cave sumps.
Scuba configurations which are more often found in cave diving than in open water diving include independent or manifolded twin cylinder rigs, side-mount harnesses, sling cylinders, rebreathers and backplate and wing harnesses.

United States Naval Academy

U.S. Naval AcademyNaval AcademyUS Naval Academy
Lambertsen held the first closed-circuit oxygen rebreather course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services maritime unit at the Naval Academy on 17 May 1943.
Dr. Chris Lambertsen held the first closed-circuit oxygen SCUBA course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services maritime unit at the academy on 17 May 1943.