Red Ruthenia

Red RusCherven townsCzerwieńRed RussiaRed StrongholdsCherven landsChervona Rus
Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' (Ruthenia Rubra; Russia Rubra; Червона Русь; Ruś Czerwona, Ruś Halicka; Червонная Русь) is a term used since the Middle Ages for the south-western principalities of the Kievan Rus', namely the Principality of Peremyshl and the Principality of Belz.wikipedia
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Lesser Poland

MałopolskaLesser PolishEast Małopolska
It has also sometimes included parts of Lesser Poland, Podolia, "Right-bank Ukraine" and Volhynia.
In the wider sense (see Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown), Lesser Poland from the 14th century also encompassed Red Ruthenia.

Principality of Peremyshl

PeremyshlPrince of Peremyshl
Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' (Ruthenia Rubra; Russia Rubra; Червона Русь; Ruś Czerwona, Ruś Halicka; Червонная Русь) is a term used since the Middle Ages for the south-western principalities of the Kievan Rus', namely the Principality of Peremyshl and the Principality of Belz.
The Principality of Peremyshl was a medieval petty principality centred on Peremyshl (now Przemyśl, Poland) in the Cherven lands ("Red Rus'").

Podolia

PodilliaPodolePodilia
It has also sometimes included parts of Lesser Poland, Podolia, "Right-bank Ukraine" and Volhynia.
Podolia lies east of historic Red Ruthenia, i.e. the eastern half of Galicia, beyond the Seret River, a tributary of the Dniester.

Sanok

SanockieSanockaSanocki
Centred on Przemyśl (Peremyshl) and Belz, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok (now all in Poland), as well as Lviv and Ternopil (in Ukraine).
Previously, it was in the Krosno Voivodeship (1975–1998) and in the Ruthenian Voivodeship (1340–1772), which was part of Red Ruthenia and, in wider sense, of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown (not of Lesser Poland proper).

Belz

BełzBełskBelsk
Centred on Przemyśl (Peremyshl) and Belz, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok (now all in Poland), as well as Lviv and Ternopil (in Ukraine).
On October 5, 1377 the town was granted rights under the Magdeburg law by Władysław Opolczyk, the governor of Red Ruthenia.

Krosno

22 – Krosno20 – KrosnoKrosno-Podkarpacie
Centred on Przemyśl (Peremyshl) and Belz, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok (now all in Poland), as well as Lviv and Ternopil (in Ukraine).
The main trade routes led to the Red Ruthenia, Hungary and the countries of southern Europe.

Western Ukraine

West UkrainewesternWestern Ukrainian
Nowadays the region comprises parts of western Ukraine and adjoining parts of south-eastern Poland.

Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
The disintegration of Rus', Red Ruthenia was contested by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (the Gediminids), the Kingdom of Poland (the Piasts), the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Ruthenia.
In the context of the 1018 Kiev expedition, Bolesław took over the western part of Red Ruthenia.

Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I ChrobryBolesław IBoleslaw I of Poland
According to Marcin Bielski, although Bolesław I Chrobry settled Germans in the region to defend the borders against Hungary and Kievan Rus' the settlers became farmers.
He consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern-day Poland, including Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen, Lusatia, and Bohemia.

Ruthenia

RusRuthenianAll Rus
First mentioned by that name in a Polish chronicle of 1321, Red Ruthenia was the portion of Ruthenia incorporated into Poland by Casimir the Great during the 14th century.

Lendians

LędzianieLedzaniansLendian
The first known inhabitants of northern Red Ruthenia were Lendians, while subgroups of Rusyns, such as Boykos and Lemkos, lived in the south.
Based on Constantine's report, it appears likely that the Lendians occupied the historical region of Chervona Rus, centred on Przemyśl.

Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
After the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, for about 400 years most of Red Ruthenia became part of Poland as the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
256 towns were founded, most in Red Ruthenia.

Walddeutsche

Deaf Germansethnic GermansGalician German
Later Walddeutsche ("Forest Germans"), Jews, Armenians and Poles also made up part of the population.
Germans settled in the territory of the Kingdom of Poland (territory of present-day Subcarpathian Voivodeship) from the 14th to 16th centuries (see Ostsiedlung), mostly after the region returned to Polish sphere of influence in 1340, when Casimir III of Poland took the Czerwień towns.

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

Galicia-Volhynia Warswars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia PrincipalityHalych-Volhyn Wars
After the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, for about 400 years most of Red Ruthenia became part of Poland as the Ruthenian Voivodeship.
Liubartas' brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis organized several expeditions to Poland and Red Ruthenia.

Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

Galicia-VolhyniaGalicia–VolhyniaHalych-Volhynia
The disintegration of Rus', Red Ruthenia was contested by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (the Gediminids), the Kingdom of Poland (the Piasts), the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Ruthenia.
At the peak of its expansion, the Galician–Volhynian state contained not only south-western Rus' lands, including Red Rus' and Black Rus', but also briefly controlled the Brodnici on the Black Sea.

Galicia (Eastern Europe)

GaliciaGalicianHalychyna
The town of Halych gave its name to Galicia.During the 1340s, the influence of the Rurik dynasty ended; most of the area passed to Casimir the Great, with Kiev and the state of Volhynia falling under Lithuanian control.
It covers much of such historic regions as Red Ruthenia (centered on Lviv) and Lesser Poland (centered in Kraków).

Lviv

LwówLembergLvov
Centred on Przemyśl (Peremyshl) and Belz, it has included major cities such as: Chełm, Zamość, Rzeszów, Krosno and Sanok (now all in Poland), as well as Lviv and Ternopil (in Ukraine).
Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Ruthenia and Galicia.

Władysław II Jagiełło

JogailaWładysław JagiełłoWladyslaw Jagiello
Since the reign of Władysław Jagiełło (d.
In 1387, she led two successful military expeditions to Red Ruthenia, recovered lands her father Louis I of Hungary had transferred from Poland to Hungary, and secured the homage of Petru I, Voivode of Moldavia.

Kolomyia

KołomyjaKolomyyaKolomea
In 1340 it was annexed to Poland by King Casimir III, together with the rest of the region of Red Ruthenia.

Stryi

StryjStryy
Stryi was mentioned for the first time in 1385 (see: Red Ruthenia).

Przemyśl Land

Przemysl Landziemia przemyska
Together with Red Ruthenia, Przemyśl Land was annexed by King Kazimierz Wielki in 1340.

Terebovlia

TrembowlaTerebovlyaTerebovl
During the Red Ruthenia times it used to be the center of Terebovlia principality.

Lemkos

LemkoLemko peopleLemki
The first known inhabitants of northern Red Ruthenia were Lendians, while subgroups of Rusyns, such as Boykos and Lemkos, lived in the south.

Deluge (history)

The DelugeDelugeSwedish invasion of Poland
Ruthenia was subject to repeated Tatar and Ottoman Empire incursions during the 16th and 17th centuries and was impacted by the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648–1654), the 1654–1667 Russo-Polish War and Swedish invasions during the Deluge (1655–1660); the Swedes returned during the Great Northern War of the early 18th century.
Soon Polish Army units began to concentrate in the area of Lwów, including militias from Red Ruthenia, Volhynia and Lublin, as well as forces under Potocki and Prince Lubomirski, together with the garrison of Kamieniec Podolski fortress.

Chełm Land

ChełmLand of Chełmziemia chełmska
In 1340, the town was annexed by Polish King Kazimierz Wielki, together with Belz, Red Ruthenia and Podolia.