Red hair

redheadred-hairedRedredheadsredheadedgingerred-headginger hairred-headedginger haired
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in one to two percent of the human population, appearing with greater frequency (two to six percent) among people of Northern or Northwestern European ancestry and lesser frequency in other populations.wikipedia
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Auburn hair

auburnRussetAuburn (color)
Red hair varies in hue from a deep burgundy or bright copper, or auburn, to burnt orange or red-orange to strawberry blond.
Auburn hair is a variety of red hair, most commonly described as reddish-brown in color or dark ginger.

Melanin

eumelaninpheomelaninphaeomelanin
Characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin, it is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye color, freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
Pheomelanin is a cysteine-derivative that contains polybenzothiazine portions that are largely responsible for the color of red hair, among other pigmentation.

Light skin

light-skinnedwhite skinfair skin
Characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin, it is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye color, freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.
The characteristic of fair skin, red hair, and freckling is associated with high amount of pheomelanin, little amounts of eumelanin.

Melanocortin 1 receptor

MC1RMC 1 extension gene
It is most common in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele on chromosome 16 that produces an altered version of the MC1R protein. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.
The prevalence of red hair varies considerably worldwide.

Chromosome 16

16chromosomes, human, pair 1616q13
It is most common in individuals homozygous for a recessive allele on chromosome 16 that produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.
*Red hair

Anne of Green Gables

Diana BarryAnneGreen Gables
In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that "her temper matches her hair", while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that "People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair."
However, she is defensive about her appearance, despising her red hair, freckles and pale, thin frame, but liking her nose.

Blond

Blondeblond hairplatinum blonde
Red hair varies in hue from a deep burgundy or bright copper, or auburn, to burnt orange or red-orange to strawberry blond.
From an ethnic point of view, Roman authors associated blond and red hair with the Gauls and the Germans: e.g., Virgil describes the hair of the Gauls as "golden" (aurea caesaries), Tacitus wrote that "the Germans have fierce blue eyes, red-blond hair (rutilae comae), huge (tall) frames"; in accordance with Ammianus, almost all the Gauls were "of tall stature, fair and ruddy".

Titian hair

Titian
The hair color "Titian" takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair.
Titian is a tint of red hair, most commonly described as brownish-orange in color.

Sarmatians

SarmatianSarmatiaSarmatae
The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.
In the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD, the Greek physician Galen declared that Sarmatians, Scythians and other northern peoples had reddish hair.

Udmurt people

UdmurtsUdmurtVotyaks
Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga Region in Russia to be "the most red-headed men in the world".
Many Udmurt people have red hair, and a festival to celebrate the red-haired people is held annually in Izhevsk since 2004.

The Red-Headed League

short story of the same titleThe Adventure of the Red-Headed LeagueThe Red Planet League
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes story "The Red-Headed League" (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people.
While studying this perspective client, both Holmes and Watson notice his red hair, which has a distinct flame-like hue.

Bruise

bruisingcontusionbruises
One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.

Thracians

Thracianancient ThraceThrace
A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.
Several Thracian graves or tombstones have the name Rufus inscribed on them, meaning "redhead" – a common name given to people with red hair which led to associating the name with slaves when the Romans enslaved this particular group.

Carrot Top

Scott "Carrot Top" ThompsonHimselfScott Thompson
(The comedian "Carrot Top" uses this stage name.) "Gingerism" has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.
He got the nickname "Carrot Top" from a local swimming coach, a reference to his red hair, which would become one of his trademarks in later life.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

melanocyte stimulating hormonealpha-mshmelanocyte-stimulating hormones
The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins.
However, in many red-headed people, and other people who do not tan well, there are variations in their hormone receptors, causing them to not respond to MSH in the blood.

Ginger Kids

Ginger Separatist MovementGinger robots
The pejorative use of the word "ginger" and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the "Ginger Kids", "Le Petit Tourette", "It's a Jersey Thing" and "Fatbeard" episodes of South Park.
It caused controversy after its ironic premise was misunderstood by people who acted violently against redheads.

Proopiomelanocortin

pro-opiomelanocortinPOMCPOMC neurons
(Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.
Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation.

List of redheads

red head
This list includes notable people with natural red hair.

How to be a Redhead

How to be a Redhead is a website founded by redheaded American sisters Adrienne and Stephanie Vendetti in response to the ostracism they encountered in school and to serve the needs of other redheaded women.

Thor

DonarThunorÞórr
The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.
In these sources, Thor bears at least fifteen names, is the husband of the golden-haired goddess Sif, is the lover of the jötunn Járnsaxa, and is generally described as fierce eyed, red haired and red bearded.

Redhead Day

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world.
The two-day festival, which inaugurated in 2005, is a gathering of people with natural red hair, but is also focused on art related to the colour red.

Mick Hucknall

Mick HucknellAmerican SoulMichael James Hucknall
The British comedy Bo' Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people.
Hucknall has said that derogatory references to his red hair are a form of bigotry.

Judas Iscariot

JudasIscariotJudases
In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.
Judas Iscariot is often shown with red hair in Spanish culture

Human hair color

hair colorBrownhair colour
The scale uses the following designations: A (very light blond), B to E (light blond), F to L (blond), M to O (dark blond), P to T (light brown to brown), U to Y (dark brown/black) and Roman numerals I to IV (red) and V to VI (red blond).

Fatbeard

The pejorative use of the word "ginger" and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the "Ginger Kids", "Le Petit Tourette", "It's a Jersey Thing" and "Fatbeard" episodes of South Park.
Cartman says that Jewish people, Mexicans, and ginger-haired people are not allowed to be pirates.