Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017
Number of high-net-worth individuals in the world in 2011
Pieter Brueghel the Younger, The tax collector's office, 1640
Substitution effect and income effect with a taxation on y good.
Budget's constraint shift after an introduction of a lump sum tax or a general tax on consumption or a proportional income tax.
The Laffer curve. In this case, the critical point is at a tax rate of 70%. Revenue increases until this peak, then it starts decreasing.
General government revenue, in % of GDP, from social contributions. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 20% by social contributions revenue.
Egyptian peasants seized for non-payment of taxes. (Pyramid Age)
Public finance revenue from taxes in % of GDP. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 32% by tax revenue.
Diagram illustrating deadweight costs of taxes

Redistribution of income and wealth is the transfer of income and wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others through a social mechanism such as taxation, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

- Redistribution of income and wealth

Progressive taxation generally reduces economic inequality, even when the tax revenue is not redistributed from higher-income individuals to lower-income individuals.

- Tax
Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Average tax rates by income groups in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, 1970 (left) and 2005 (right). Taxes were more progressive in 1970 than in 2005.

Progressive tax

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Average tax rates by income groups in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, 1970 (left) and 2005 (right). Taxes were more progressive in 1970 than in 2005.
A caricature of William Pitt the Younger collecting the newly introduced income tax.
German marginal and average income tax rates display a progressive structure.
"Tax The Rich" banner at an International Union of Socialist Youth campaign for a financial transaction tax.
The function which defines the progressive approach to an income tax, may be mathematically defined as a piecewise function. In every piece (tax bracket), it must be computed cumulatively, considering the taxes which had already been computed to the previous tax brackets. Pictured is the effective income tax for Portugal in 2012 and 2013.
Distribution of US federal taxes from 1979 to 2013, based on CBO Estimates.

A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.

This is especially true if taxation is used to fund progressive government spending such as transfer payments and social safety nets.

Transfer payment

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In macroeconomics and finance, a transfer payment (also called a government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth by means of the government making a payment, without goods or services being received in return.

Governments pool taxes and other sources of revenue together and spend the money to further a certain agenda.

An artist's rendering of what Plato might have looked like. From Raphael's early 16th century painting "Scuola di Atene".

Social justice

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Justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society.

Justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society.

An artist's rendering of what Plato might have looked like. From Raphael's early 16th century painting "Scuola di Atene".
Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern.
Bust of Socrates
Social justice has been traditionally credited to be coined by Jesuit priest Luigi Taparelli in the 1840s, but the expression is older
Thomas Pogge

The relevant institutions often include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure distribution of wealth, and equal opportunity.

The report concludes, "Social justice is not possible without strong and coherent redistributive policies conceived and implemented by public agencies."