Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestantProtestantsReformerReformedLutheran ReformationGerman ReformationReformersProtestant Reformers
The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation ) was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular.wikipedia
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Martin Luther

LutherLutheranLuther, Martin
Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms.
Martin Luther, ( ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

Western Christianity

Western ChristianWestWestern
The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation ) was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular.
Out of the Latin Church emerged a wide variety of independent Protestant denominations, including Lutheranism and Anglicanism, starting from the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, as did Independent Catholicism in the 19th century.

Augsburg Confession

Confession of AugsburgConfessio AugustanaUnaltered Augsburg Confession
The 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", and even after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent as an attempt to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles.
The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reformation.

Girolamo Savonarola

SavonarolaGerolamo SavonarolaJerome Savonarola
Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola.
Some Protestants consider Savonarola to be a vital precursor of the Reformation.

Sola scriptura

Scripture aloneAuthority of Scripturesufficiency of Scripture
The Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine (sola scriptura) and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin (sola fide) rather than good works.
It was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by many of the Reformers, who taught that authentication of scripture is governed by the discernible excellence of the text as well as the personal witness of the Holy Spirit to the heart of each man.

Diet of Worms

Edict of WormsWormsconfrontation
Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms.
This one is most memorable for the Edict of Worms (Wormser Edikt), which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.

Bible

biblicalThe BibleChristian Bible
Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible.
This concept arose during the Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching.

Waldensians

WaldensianWaldensesVaudois
Due to the reform efforts of Hus and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was officially acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the Lollards in England and the Waldensians in France and Italian regions.
In the era of the Reformation, the Waldensians influenced early Swiss reformer Heinrich Bullinger.

Indulgence

indulgencesplenary indulgenceEnchiridion Indulgentiarum
Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible.
Indulgences were, from the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, a target of attacks by Martin Luther and other Protestant theologians.

Council of Trent

Tridentinepost-TridentineTridentine Council
Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, and also a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century.
Prompted by the Protestant Reformation, it has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.

Confessionalization

During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).
In Protestant Reformation history, confessionalization is the parallel processes of "confession-building" taking place in Europe between the Peace of Augsburg (1555) and the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).

Geneva

Geneva, SwitzerlandGenèveGeneve
The initial movement in Germany diversified, and other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva.
In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Due to the reform efforts of Hus and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was officially acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, including the Lollards in England and the Waldensians in France and Italian regions.
Even after the Reformation, the elected emperor always was a Roman Catholic.

Johannes Gutenberg

GutenbergJohann GutenbergJohannes Gutenburg
The spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular.
It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.

Arnold of Brescia

Arnaldo da BresciaArnoldists
Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola.
Protestants rank him among the precursors of the Reformation.

John Wycliffe

John WyclifWycliffeJohn Wycliff
Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola.
In the 16th century and beyond, the Lollard movement was sometimes regarded as the precursor to the Protestant Reformation.

German Peasants' War

Peasants' WarPeasants' RevoltBauernkrieg
Anabaptist movements were especially persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Although the German Peasants' War of 1524–1525 began as a tax and anti-corruption protest as reflected in the Twelve Articles, its leader Thomas Müntzer gave it a radical Reformation character.
The revolt incorporated some principles and rhetoric from the emerging Protestant Reformation, through which the peasants sought influence and freedom.

Unitarianism

UnitarianUnitariansUnitarian Church
During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).
Despite common origins during the Protestant Reformation, some scholars call it a part of Nontrinitarianism, while others consider it both Protestant and Nontrinitarian, seeing no contradiction between those two terms.

Faith in Christianity

faithChristian faithfaith in Christ
The Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine (sola scriptura) and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin (sola fide) rather than good works.
Since the Protestant Reformation the meaning of this term has been an object of major theological disagreement in Western Christianity.

Printing press

pressprinting pressesprinting-press
The spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular.
The relatively unrestricted circulation of information and (revolutionary) ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities.

Nicodemite

NicodemismCrypto-Catholic
As a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants, also called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin, who wanted them to live their faith openly.
It was usually applied to persons of publicly conservative religious position and practice who were thought to be secretly humanistic or reformed.

Wittenberg

Lutherstadt WittenbergWittenberg upon ElbeApollensdorf
The Reformation is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in Wittenberg, Saxony, when Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the Archbishop of Mainz.
Wittenberg is famous for its close connection with Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation, for which it received the honorific Lutherstadt.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther in Decet Romanum Pontificem and the condemnation of his followers by the edicts of the 1521 Diet of Worms, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various churches in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere.
Jean Calvin ; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Thomas Müntzer

Thomas MünzerMüntzerThomas Muentzer
Although the German Peasants' War of 1524–1525 began as a tax and anti-corruption protest as reflected in the Twelve Articles, its leader Thomas Müntzer gave it a radical Reformation character.
1489 – 1525) was a German preacher and radical theologian of the early Reformation whose opposition to both Martin Luther and the Roman Catholic Church led to his open defiance of late-feudal authority in central Germany.

Sola fide

justification by faithfaith alonejustification by faith alone
The Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine (sola scriptura) and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin (sola fide) rather than good works.
However, theological discussion in the centuries since the Reformation and Counter-Reformation has suggested that the differences are in emphasis and concepts rather than doctrine, since the Roman Catholics or Orthodox do not in fact hold that works are a basis of justification or a means of salvation, and most Protestants do in fact accept the need for repentance and the primacy of grace.