Refractory period (sex)

refractory periodfeeling tired after having intercourserefactory (rest) periodrefractory timesleep mode
In human sexuality, the refractory period is usually the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms.wikipedia
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Orgasm

sexual gratificationclimaxesclimax
In human sexuality, the refractory period is usually the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms.
The period after orgasm (known as the refractory period) is often a relaxing experience, attributed to the release of the neurohormones oxytocin and prolactin as well as endorphins (or "endogenous morphine").

Human sexuality

sexualitysexualsex
In human sexuality, the refractory period is usually the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms.
In the resolution phase, the male is now in an unaroused state consisting of a refactory (rest) period before the cycle can begin.

Ejaculation

ejaculateejaculatedejaculates
This phase begins immediately after ejaculation and lasts until the excitement phase of the human sexual response cycle begins anew with low level response.
Most men experience a refractory period immediately following an orgasm, during which time they are unable to achieve another erection, and a longer period again before they are capable of achieving another ejaculation.

Cabergoline

Because of this, there is currently an experimental interest in drugs which inhibit prolactin, such as cabergoline (also known as Cabeser, or Dostinex).
It also has been suggested that it has a possible recreational use in reducing or eliminating the male refractory period, thereby allowing men to experience multiple ejaculatory orgasms in rapid succession, and at least two scientific studies support those speculations.

Sexual arousal

sexually arousedarousalaroused
Another chemical which is considered to be responsible for the male refractory period is prolactin, which represses dopamine, which is responsible for sexual arousal.
After orgasm and ejaculation, men usually experience a refractory period characterised by loss of erection, a subsidence in any sex flush, less interest in sex, and a feeling of relaxation that can be attributed to the neurohormones oxytocin and prolactin.

Sildenafil

Viagrasildenafil citrateblue pill
Sildenafil, used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, was found in one scientific study to have caused "a decreased postejaculatory erectile refractory time (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 6.4 ± 0.7 minutes)" in men diagnosed with premature ejaculation.
In one study, a 25-mg dose was shown to cause no significant change in erectile quality, but did reduce the postejaculatory refractory time.

Post-coital tristesse

every animal is sad after sexOmne animal post coitum triste estpost-coital langour
Post-coital tristesse
PCT is a separate phenomenon from the refractory period.

Human sexual response cycle

human sexual responsesexual response cyclelonger lasting sexual encounters
This phase begins immediately after ejaculation and lasts until the excitement phase of the human sexual response cycle begins anew with low level response.

Sexual stimulation

sexual pleasureerotic pleasuresexually stimulated
Although it is generally reported that women do not experience a refractory period and can thus experience an additional orgasm (or multiple orgasms) soon after the first one, some sources state that both men and women experience a refractory period because women may also experience a moment after orgasm in which further sexual stimulation does not produce excitement.

Erection

erectpenile erectionerect penis
While the refractory period varies widely among individuals, ranging from minutes to days, most men cannot achieve or maintain an erection during this time, and many perceive a psychological feeling of satisfaction and are temporarily uninterested in further sexual activity; the penis may be hypersensitive and further sexual stimulation may feel painful during this time frame.

Human penis

penispenisesdick
While the refractory period varies widely among individuals, ranging from minutes to days, most men cannot achieve or maintain an erection during this time, and many perceive a psychological feeling of satisfaction and are temporarily uninterested in further sexual activity; the penis may be hypersensitive and further sexual stimulation may feel painful during this time frame.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
An increased infusion of the hormone oxytocin during ejaculation is believed to be chiefly responsible for the male refractory period, and the amount by which oxytocin is increased may affect the length of each refractory period.

Oxytocin

oxytocicsfirst synthesis of a polypeptide hormoneBonding in mammals
An increased infusion of the hormone oxytocin during ejaculation is believed to be chiefly responsible for the male refractory period, and the amount by which oxytocin is increased may affect the length of each refractory period.

Prolactin

lactationPRLreceptors, prolactin
Another chemical which is considered to be responsible for the male refractory period is prolactin, which represses dopamine, which is responsible for sexual arousal.

Dopamine

DAdopaminergic systemdopaminergic
Another chemical which is considered to be responsible for the male refractory period is prolactin, which represses dopamine, which is responsible for sexual arousal.

Erectile dysfunction

impotenceimpotentimpotency
Sildenafil, used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, was found in one scientific study to have caused "a decreased postejaculatory erectile refractory time (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 6.4 ± 0.7 minutes)" in men diagnosed with premature ejaculation.

Premature ejaculation

ejaculates prematurelyejaculatio praecoxpremature
Sildenafil, used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, was found in one scientific study to have caused "a decreased postejaculatory erectile refractory time (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 6.4 ± 0.7 minutes)" in men diagnosed with premature ejaculation.

Neuropeptide VF precursor

gonadotropin inhibitory hormone
It is additionally proposed that the gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), which is considered to inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexual functions causes refractoriness of the post-ejaculatory refractory period.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axisHPG axishypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis
It is additionally proposed that the gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), which is considered to inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexual functions causes refractoriness of the post-ejaculatory refractory period.

Seminal vesicle

seminal vesiclesvesicula seminalisvesicular gland
This theory suggests that after male ejaculation, decreased wall tension in structures such as the seminal vesicles leads to a change in the fine autonomic signals sent from these organs, effectively creating a negative feedback loop.

Clitoris

clitoralclitoral glansglans clitoridis
However, there are many women who experience clitoral hypersensitivity after orgasm, which can effectively create a refractory period.

Havelock Ellis

Ellis, Havelockeonism[Havelock] Ellis
According to Havelock Ellis, most multi-orgasmic men (and their partners) report that multiple orgasms lead to a highly energetic post-orgasmic state.

Rutgers University

RutgersRutgers CollegeRutgers, The State University of New Jersey
A scientific study attempting to document natural, fully ejaculatory, multiple orgasms in an adult man was conducted at Rutgers University in 1995.

Puberty

pubescentpubescencesexual development
In addition, many men who began masturbation or other sexual activity prior to puberty report the ability of having been able to achieve multiple, non-ejaculatory orgasms without refractory periods during that time in their lives.