Regia Marina

Royal Italian NavyItalian NavyItalian Royal NavyItalianItalian fleetRoyal NavyItalyMinister of the NavyRegia Marina ItalianaItalian Navy submarine
The Regia Marina was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.wikipedia
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Italian Navy

Marina MilitareNavyItalian
In 1946, with the birth of the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), the Regia Marina changed its name to Marina Militare ("Military Navy").
It is one of the four branches of Italian Armed Forces and was formed in 1946 from what remained of the Regia Marina (Royal Navy) after World War II.

Battle of Lissa (1866)

Battle of LissaLissaBattle of Vis
The new navy's baptism of fire came on 20 July 1866 at the Battle of Lissa during the Third Italian War of Independence (parallel to the Seven Weeks War).
The Battle of Lissa (sometimes called Battle of Vis) took place on 20 July 1866 in the Adriatic Sea near the Dalmatian island of Lissa ("Vis" in Croatian) and was a decisive victory for an outnumbered Austrian Empire force over a numerically superior Italian force.

Carlo Pellion di Persano

Carlo di PersanoAdmiral PersanoCarlo Persano
Italy did not possess the shipyards or infrastructure to build the modern ships required, but the then Minister for the Navy, Admiral Carlo di Persano, launched a substantial programme to purchase warships from foreign yards.
Count Carlo Pellion di Persano (11 March 1806 – 28 July 1883) was an Italian admiral and politician, who was commander of the Italian fleet at the 1866 Battle of Lissa.

Simone Antonio Saint-Bon

Simone di Pacoret Saint BonSimone Pacoret de Saint BonSimone de Pacoret Saint Bon
After the war, the Regia Marina passed through some difficult years as the naval budget was substantially reduced, thus impairing the fleet's efficiency and the pace of new construction; only in the 1870s, under Simone Pacoret de Saint Bon's ministry, did the situation begin to improve.
Simone Antonio Pacoret de Saint-Bon (March 20, 1828 – November 26, 1892) was an admiral of the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy).

Vittorio Cuniberti

An Italian naval officer, Vittorio Cuniberti, was the first in 1903 to envision in a published article the all-big gun battleship design, which would be later come to be known as dreadnought.
Born in Turin, he joined the Genio Navale (the corps of the Regia Marina dedicated to shipbuilding) in 1878, and rose through the ranks until he became Major general in 1910.

Taranto

TarentumTarasTaranto, Italy
The Italian fleet lost the pre-dreadnought battleship at Brindisi (27 September 1915) and the dreadnought at Taranto (2 August 1916) due to a magazine explosion (although there were rumours of Austrian sabotage). The first major action occurred on 11 November 1940 when the British aircraft carrier launched two waves of Swordfish torpedo-bombers in a surprise raid against the Italian Fleet moored at the naval base of Taranto.
During World War II, Taranto became famous as a consequence of the November 1940 British air attack on the Regia Marina naval base stationed here, which today is called the Battle of Taranto.

Dreadnought

dreadnought battleshipsuper-dreadnoughtdreadnoughts
An Italian naval officer, Vittorio Cuniberti, was the first in 1903 to envision in a published article the all-big gun battleship design, which would be later come to be known as dreadnought.
Cuniberti's idea—which he had already proposed to his own navy, the Regia Marina—was to make use of the high rate of fire of new 12-inch guns to produce devastating rapid-fire from heavy guns to replace the 'hail of fire' from lighter weapons.

Third Italian War of Independence

Third War of Italian IndependenceThird War of IndependenceThird Italian Independence War
The new navy's baptism of fire came on 20 July 1866 at the Battle of Lissa during the Third Italian War of Independence (parallel to the Seven Weeks War).

Domenico Cavagnari

Admiral Cavagnari
This was mainly due to the influence of Admiral Domenico Cavagnari, whom Mussolini appointed as Chief of Staff of the Navy in 1933, and whom he later promoted to Secretary of the Navy.
Domenico Cavagnari (20 July 1876, Genoa – 2 November 1966, Rome) was an Italian admiral and the Chief of Staff of the Regia Marina from 1934 until 1940.

Ironclad warship

ironcladironcladsbroadside ironclad
The Italian fleet, commanded by Admiral Persano, mustered 12 ironclad and 17 wooden-hulled ships, though only one, was of the most modern turret ship design.
Waged between the Austrian and Italian navies, the battle pitted combined fleets of wooden frigates and corvettes and ironclad warships on both sides in the largest naval battle between the battles of Navarino and Tsushima.

Battle of Kunfuda Bay

Kunfuda Bay
These were destroyed while attempting to withdraw into the Mediterranean at the Battle of Kunfuda Bay.
Following the outbreak of the Italo-Turkish War in September 1911, the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) concentrated a squadron of cruisers, destroyers, and light craft in the Red Sea to protect Italian Eritrea from a perceived threat of invasion by Ottoman forces in the Arabian peninsula.

Italian Naval Academy

Naval AcademyRoyal Naval AcademyAccademia Navale di Livorno
These problems were compounded by the continuation of separate officer schools at Genoa and Naples, and were not fully addressed until the opening of a unified Naval Academy at Livorno in 1881.
The Accademia was started by the then Secretary of the Navy, Admiral Benedetto Brin, as the union of the "Regia scuola di marina" in the Kingdom of Sardinia (located in Genoa) and the "Borbonica" (in Naples) following the Unification of Italy and the establishment of the Regia Marina.

Vis (island)

VisLissaIssa
The battle was fought against the Austrian Empire and occurred near the island of Vis in the Adriatic sea.

Battleship

battleshipsdreadnoughtbattle ship
Before 1914, the Kingdom of Italy built six dreadnought battleships: ( as a prototype;, and of the ; and and of the ), but they did not participate in major naval actions in World War I, as they were positioned to intercept a major sortie of the Austro-Hungarian Navy which never came.
When the Regia Marina did not pursue his ideas, Cuniberti wrote an article in Janes proposing an "ideal" future British battleship, a large armored warship of 17,000 tons, armed solely with a single calibre main battery (twelve 12-inch [305 mm] guns), carrying 300 mm belt armor, and capable of 24 knots (44 km/h).

Supermarina

The Italian High Command (Comando Supremo) did not approve of the plan devised by the Italian Naval Headquarters (Supermarina) to occupy a weakly defended Malta, which proved a crucial mistake.
Supermarina was the headquarters of the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) established on 1 June 1940, just before Italy entered the Second World War.

Battle of the Mediterranean

MediterraneanMediterranean CampaignMediterranean theatre
A further key disadvantage in the convoy support and interception battles that dominated the Battle of the Mediterranean was the intelligence advantage the British held in their Ultra intercept system.
For the most part, the campaign was fought between the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina), supported by other Axis naval and air forces, and the British Royal Navy, supported by other Allied naval forces, such as Australia, the Netherlands, Poland and Greece.

Battle of Taranto

Tarantoattack on Tarantoraid on Taranto
The first major action occurred on 11 November 1940 when the British aircraft carrier launched two waves of Swordfish torpedo-bombers in a surprise raid against the Italian Fleet moored at the naval base of Taranto.
The attack struck the battle fleet of the Regia Marina at anchor in the harbour of Taranto, using aerial torpedoes despite the shallowness of the water.

Malta convoys

Operation HatsMalta convoyconvoys to Malta
An example occurred during "Operation Hats", in which the Regia Marina had superior forces but failed to commit them to take advantage of the opportunity.
British and Allied ships were attacked by the Italian Regia Aeronautica (Royal Air Force) and Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in 1940 and from 1941, by the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) and Kriegsmarine (German Navy).

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
After World War II, this ship was handed over to the Soviet Union as part of war reparations and was shortly afterwards decommissioned.
The Italian Navy also suffered significant defeats, with the Royal Navy putting three Italian battleships out of commission by a carrier attack at Taranto and neutralising several more warships at the Battle of Cape Matapan.

Human torpedo

manned torpedomanned torpedoeshuman torpedoes
In the last part of the war, the Regia Marina developed new weapons: the MAS boats, that sank the Austro-Hungarian battleship in the Adriatic Sea on 10 June 1918; and an early type of human torpedo (Mignatta) entered the harbour of Pula and sank the Austro-Hungarian flagship on 1 November 1918 shortly after the entire Austro-Hungarian Navy was turned over to the newly founded neutral State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
Attacks in 1940 were unsuccessful but in 1941, the Italian navy (Regia Marina) successfully forced the harbour of Alexandria and damaged the two British battleships and, as well as the tanker Sagona.

Second Battle of Sirte

Second Battles of SirteSecond SirteAssessments
This led to a number of naval engagements, including the Second Battle of Sirte in March 1942, Operation Harpoon and Operation Vigorous, (known as the "Battle of Mid-June") and Operation Pedestal (the "Battle of Mid-August").
The Second Battle of Sirte was a naval engagement on 22 March 1942 in which the escorting warships of a British convoy to Malta frustrated a much more powerful Regia Marina (Italian Navy) squadron.

Guglielmo Marconi

MarconiMarconi WirelessMarconi's Wireless Telegraph Company
The following year the Regia Marina conducted experiments with Guglielmo Marconi in the use of radio communications.
He attained the rank of lieutenant in the Royal Italian Army and of commander in the Regia Marina.

Kingdom of Italy

ItalyItalianFascist Italy
The Regia Marina was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
Naval battles occurred between the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) and the Austro-Hungarian Navy.

Battle of Cape Matapan

Cape MatapanMatapanBattle of Matapan
Another major defeat was inflicted on the Regia Marina at Cape Matapan, where the Royal Navy and the Royal Australian Navy intercepted and destroyed three heavy cruisers (, and ; all of the same class) and two s in a night ambush, with the loss of over 2,300 seamen.
Following the interception of Italian signals by the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, ships of the Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy, under the command of the Royal Navy's Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, intercepted and sank or severely damaged several ships of the Italian Regia Marina under Squadron-Vice-Admiral Angelo Iachino.

Second Italo-Ethiopian War

Second Italo-Abyssinian WarItalian invasion of Ethiopiainvasion of Ethiopia
The Regia Marina played a limited role in the invasion of Ethiopia.
The Regia Marina (Royal Navy) carried tons of ammunition, food and other supplies, with the motor vehicles to move them, while the Ethiopians had only horse-drawn carts.